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     The General Association in 1887 met in Lincoln, and in its sessions considered largely educational matters.
     A new college knocked at its doors for recognition. Its origin may be briefly stated. With returning prosperity in 1880 the northern counties of Nebraska began to ask for an educational institution, and took steps to organize a second Congregational college. The Columbus Association was active in the movement. In its annual meeting, 1881, it decided to ask for bids for the location of "an institution of academy or seminary grade." Neligh, Antelope county, secured the institution. The articles of incorporation gave it the name of


     The institution was named in memory of former State Superintendent of Home Missions, Rev. H. N. Gates. The college came into legal existence September 29, 1881, but for the first four years it did only preparatory work, and was recognized by the association as doing academy work. The association was loath to recognize a second college, and in 1885, as we have seen, deemed the "founding of new colleges as unwise and inexpedient," and in 1886 a committee, formed of representatives from the educational institutions and local associations, together with the Chancellor of the State University, in accordance with the instruction of the association, took the whole matter under advisement

     1 For further account see Education in Nebraska, pp. 219-26. Our object is only to show the organization and place of Gates College in the development of Congregationalism in the state.


and presented a lengthy and in part divisive report before the association in Lincoln in 1887. This report was favorable to the academies, recommending the endowment of those already existing, and the planting and endowment of others "in wisely selected locations throughout the state"; it endorsed the German Theological Seminary at Crete. But on the number of colleges to be encouraged the report was divisive. A part of the committee consisting of H. Bross, Geo. F. Taylor, Wm. Suess, A. V. Rice, John Schaerer, and G. A. Gregory reported in favor of endorsing Gates College as a college, but deprecated "the further increase of the number in the state." The other members, consisting of W. P. Bennett, D. B. Perry, Willard Scott, George Hindley, C. H. Dye, Irving J. Manatt, and J. B. Parmalee, reported to recognize and endorse Gates College as a useful preparatory institution. "But it is the sense of this committee that its highest usefulness and the interest of our general educational work in the state will be best served by limiting its work in the main to its preparatory department."2
     On the program of this meeting of the General Association we find such questions as these: "The need for a college in northern Nebraska," Prof. R. A. Harper of Gates College; "One college or two," Dr. Willard Scott. It is easy to conjecture that the interest in the general question was intense and growing.
     The following years committees were appointed to visit, and reports were received from both Doane and Gates colleges, but it does not appear that there was any particular discussion of the college question until 1891 at the Fremont meeting, when the recognition of Gates College was given a special place on the program of the association, and the issue was squarely met in the discussion of the question,

     2 Minutes, 1887, pp. 39-41.


     "Resolved, That the association endorse Gates College as a Congregational college."
     Before the vote on the question "it was voted that, immediately upon announcement of the vote, the congregation rise and sing the doxology, 'Praise God from whom all blessings flow'"! "The resolution was defeated by a vote of 107 to 124." And "upon the announcement of the vote the members arose and united in singing the doxology."
     Dr. J. T. Duryea of Omaha then introduced the following resolution, which was adopted:

     "Resolved, That the association advise the trustees of Gates College to direct their efforts for the present to the development of the preparatory department, extending its course as far as the end of the sophomore year, and in case they decide to adopt this advice, that they be commended to the churches for aid."3

     But the college question was by no means settled. It assumed the form of a relocation of the Congregational college and a union of Doane and Gates. Dr. Duryea offered the following, which was unanimously adopted:

     "Whereas, In the course of the discussion of the endorsement of Gates College it was suggested that there might be a union effected between Doane College and Gates College;
     "Resolved, That the whole matter of the policy of the churches of Nebraska. in respect to its educational institutions be referred to a commission of nine members, selecting one from each local association, which shall report at the next meeting of the State Association."4

     The Omaha meeting of 1892 will long be remembered for the discussion on the report of the educational commis-

     3 Minutes, 1891, pp. 12-14.
     4 Minutes, 1891, pp. 15, 16.


sion. The question of the proposed consolidation of the colleges was before the meeting. The excitement was intense, the discussion spirited, the appeals from the floor confusing to both moderator and people, and the confusion at times distracting. It is said that the devotional service which came in the midst of the heated discussion, and was led by Dr. S. Wright Butler, subdued the feeling, brought the members into a more normal condition of mind and heart, and made possible a course of action which was creditable to the association if not acceptable to all. The result was the creation of a new educational commission, consisting of Rev. A. A. Cressman, A. G. McGrew, M.D., Rev. F. C. Cochran, O. W. Needham, Rev. T. W. De Long, F. P. Wigton, Rev. Geo. S. Biscoe, V. S. Abraham, Rev. William Fritzemeier, John Asmus, Rev. L. Gregory, C. M. Root, Rev. F. L. Ferguson, Rev, G. J. Powell, Rev. W. H. Buss, William Fleming, Rev. George E. Taylor, and Prof. A. C. Hart, "whose duty it shall be to incorporate themselves into a board of trustees of one union Congregational college in Nebraska, as soon as they are definitely assured by the official boards of Doane and Gates colleges that all transferable assets of said institutions will be transferred to the new corporation, whose duty then shall be to take all possible action looking toward such consolidation, receive bids of donations, and report at the next annual meeting of the association."5 This commission through its chairman, Rev. G. J. Powell, reported the following year--Beatrice, 1893--that "it was found impossible to accomplish anything in accordance with the resolution under which the commission was appointed."6 Doane College did not see its way clear to surrender its charter and turn over its assets, amounting

     5 Minutes, 1892, pp. 10-16.
     6 Minutes, 1893, p. 47.


then to $200,000, to a new corporation, although Gates was favorable to the proposition.7
     This ended the efforts to consolidate the two institutions. Other causes were operating to bring about an end to the controversy.
     "In 1895 the trustees of Gates College, confronted with a grave financial deficit, voted to remove the college from Neligh to Norfolk, at which place they were promised a considerable gift in lands and moneys. To prevent this action the citizens of Neligh, including several trustees, invoked the aid of the courts. But the major part of the trustees, the president and part of the faculty, resigned and threw their support to a new institution at Norfolk, which they christened Norfolk College. The result was not the removal of Gates College, but the founding of a third college in competition with it. For about three years this division of forces continued. In 1898, in deference to the findings of a "committee of investigation" of representative Congregational clergymen from Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Colorado, the institution at Norfolk closed its work, leaving the field to Gates College; but the long controversy had so far weakened its strength that Gates College was unable to maintain its position; and in the spring of 1899 it resigned its college charter and became an academy."8
     The years of controversy were unfortunate; they hindered the real advance of educational work in the state. A divisive question unsettled the people, caused some to lose interest in Doane College, and prevented the college from doing its best work, because of meager equipment, at a time when it should have had the individual support of all the churches, and yet during all this time Doane was overcoming great difficulties, was doing splendid work, was

     7 Minutes, 1893, pp. 46, 47.
     8 Education in Nebraska, p. 223.


slowly increasing its assets, and paying its debts. It was securing an accredited standing among the colleges of the land, and the high merit of its work was recognized by the State University.
     Members of the faculty, for the good work which they did, were called to other institutions--Prof. F. L. Kendall to Williams College; Prof. A. B. Show to Leland Stanford Junior University; Prof. G. D. Swezey to the University of Nebraska.9
     When Professor Perry became President Perry in 1881, Doane College reported the following professorships: mental and moral philosophy, D. B. Perry; mathematics, Arthur B. Fairchild; natural sciences, Goodwin D. Swezey. And a year later there were added to these, chemistry, John S. Brown; German and French, Francis L. Kendall; Greek, Howard F. Doane. Besides these there were several instructors, but the college had not reached the eight full professorships which now are deemed necessary to secure recognition as a high grade college of front rank.
     It, however, was making progress year by year, and the catalogue of 1904 gives a corps of professors and instructors of whom it is justly proud, men whose magnificent work would be even better if Doane College had the larger and better material equipment which it is now seeking to secure, and which its growing number of students demands.
     The following is the register of 1904:


     FACULTY AND INSTRUCTORS.--Rev. David Brainerd Perry, D.D. (Yale), President, Perry professor of mental philosophy and history; Arthur Babbitt Fairchild, AB. (Berea), David Whitcomb professor of economics and ethics; John

     9 Historical Glimpses, p. 30.


Sewall Brown, A.M. (Bates), principal of academy and professor of ancient languages; Howard Freeman Doane, A.B. (Harvard), Boswell professor of Greek and Latin; Margaret Eleanor Thompson, S.B. (Doane), A.M. (University of Nebraska), professor of English literature and instructor in history of art; William Everett Jillson, A.M. (Brown), professor of German and French and instructor in elocution; Henry Hallock Hosford, AM. (Western Reserve), professor of chemistry and instructor in physics and astronomy; Joseph Horace Powers, S.B. (University of Wisconsin), Ph.D. (Göttingen), Crete professor of biology; John Newton Bennett, A.B. (Doane), A.M. (University of Nebraska), professor of mathematics and assistant principal of academy; Hiram Gillespie, A.B. (University of Chicago), A.M. (Yale), acting professor of Greek and Latin; Mildred Ethel Vance, A.B. (Doane), principal of women's department and instructor in history and physical training; Laura Hulda Wild, A.B. (Smith), instructor in Biblical literature; Walter Guernsey Reynolds, diploma from Mansfield (Pennsylvania) State Normal Conservatory of Music, private pupil of M. Guilmant and Madame de Picciotto, Paris, musical director, singing, pianoforte, organ, theory; Jennie Chamberlain Hosford (Mrs.), A.B, (Smith), pianoforte; Robert Lithgow Dick, S.B. (Doane), private pupil of Miss Silence Dales and Gustav Menzendorf, violin and harmony; Sadie Davis Reynolds (Mrs.), S.B. (Lawrence University), instructor in art; John William Fuhrer, physical director for men; Oscar Tretonious Swanson, instructor in bookkeeping; George Roger La Rue, teacher of biology; Perry Clayton Swift, teacher of stenography; George Joshua Taylor, teacher of mathematics; Flora May Waldorf, teacher of physics; Henry William Wendland, teacher of mathematics.


     OFFICERS.--Hiram Gillespie, registrar; Joseph Horace Powers, secretary of faculty; William Everett Jillson, librarian; Mrs. Eliza Margaret Boehne, matron.
     COMMITTEE ON SCHOLARSHIP FUNDS.--David Brainerd Perry, John Sewall Brown, Arthur Babbitt Fairchild.
     STUDENT ASSISTANTS.--William Everett Jillson, Jr., assistant in Whitin Library; Genevieve Krainek, assistant in Whitin Library; George Roger La Rue, weather bureau observer in charge of Boswell Observatory; Arthur Walton Medlar, assistant in treasurer's office; Alonzo London Moon, assistant in Whitin Library; Ernest Clifford Potts, assistant in Whitin Library.
     Congregational Nebraska in its educational work now concentrates its effort to the upbuilding of Doane College and the five academies which enter into its unique educational system--Crete, Franklin, Chadron, Gates, and Weeping Water; but it takes a profound interest in the public schools of the state, in its normal schools and State University, and rejoices in the Christian men and women called to service in these institutions. It would gladly see the whole state Christian in the highest and best sense of the term.
     The present attitude of the churches to the educational work in the state is expressed in the report of the Committee on Education at the Hastings meeting of the association in 1900. The report was presented by the writer, as chairman, was unanimously adopted, and is in part as follows:

     "Your Committee on Christian Education desires in the beginning to express its belief in the great need of a clear understanding of what is involved in the use of the term 'Christian education.'
     "1. It does not believe that the term has reference simply to an education received in a denominational or church school which may or may not be Christian.


     "2. It does not believe that the term necessarily rules out an education which is received in our public schools, some of which are decidedly Christian in their influence, while others may be far from it.
     "3. Neither does your committee believe that Christian education is all summed up in the chapel exercises, reading the Bible in school, and in devotional services of various kinds, valuable and helpful as these are in the development of Christian character. Indeed, these may be so conducted as to narrow rather than to enlarge the student's spiritual range of vision and limit the field of his spiritual activities.
     "4. Your committee does believe that Christian education brings into harmonious relations and adjustment scientific and philosophical truth and the teachings of the Gospel of Christ.
     "(1) It is just as easy to create a sect in scientific or philosophical teachings as it is in religious instruction. Christian education avoids both, but ever seeks to discover the truth, and then show that truth is not inconsistent with itself, but in the ultimate analysis is in perfect harmony in all its relations.
     "(2) Christian education goes still further and emphasizes the personal relation of Him who is the embodiment and incarnation of truth with and to the individuals, so that the feeling of personal responsibility and accountability is established and maintained, and human conduct regulated by the teachings of the Scriptures.
     "(3) It is evident, then, that the determining agent in making evident the character of a school is the teacher himself. Are the teachers in our schools men and women of broad culture, sterling integrity of character, possessed of the trite Christian spirit, who have the ability to show that the truths which they are called to teach harmonize with the religion whose center and life is Christ himself, who


comes into personal relation to those whose eyes and hearts are opened to the reception of all truth as it is made known to them? With rare exceptions we believe they are. We also believe that the greatest care should he exercised in the selection of such teachers.
     "5. Your committee still further believes that in establishing and maintaining the Christian school and academy the location should be such as to make imperative the demand for the Christian school in that place.
     "(1) What are the elements which enter into this demand? (a) The inefficiency of the public schools to do the necessary work, due to a lack of equipment, mental, moral, and material. (b) The failure of the public schools to maintain Christian instruction in accordance with the above interpretation. (c) Inability on the part of the public schools to afford thorough preparation for our colleges or universities should be deemed sufficient reason for the establishment of a first-class secondary school in the destitute region.
     "6. Your committee is also convinced that the determination to maintain, for the present at least, only one denominational college in the state is eminently wise, and that earnest efforts should be made to increase the endowment and enlarge the field of operation of that institution which is already the pride of the state and whose superior work is its best recommendation to the citizens of Nebraska, viz., Doane College of Crete. Doane College and Academy are seeking to afford opportunities for the best instruction in college work, and, through the application of modern methods, to bring out the best thought of the student in the development of the symmetrical education, which is not only literary, scientific, and philosophical, but decidedly Christian. Through personal visitation and examination of work done, your committee is assured that Doane College has an able


faculty whose instruction is limited only by the equipment of the institution, and that the enlargement of its work must be preceded by the enlargement of its endowment. In a commonwealth whose State University has entering into it such a large measure of Christian influence as we are glad to see in our state university, a denominational college, to hold its own in educational competition, must be able to give the very best service in laboratory and class room, together with a personal influence which may be lacking in the larger universities. It is right here that the small college has a distinct and unique field of usefulness. It is not so much that the student in the large university does not come into personal contact with the head professors as it is that he is liable, in the course of his university life, to come under the influence of some one or more teachers of agnostic trend of thought who unsettle the Christian belief of those whom they may influence. In this respect the Christian college holds a preeminent position of influence for good, as it is the business and aim of its trustees to keep in its faculties only men of positive Christian faith as well as of sound learning with ability to teach. It is not always easy to do this in a state institution where political and other reasons may influence, to a greater or less degree, the action of its regents. But in all these institutions their influence will be determined by the character of the teachers and the spirit of the student body which is in part determined by the general influence of the faculties.
     "The demand, then, for a Christian college of broad culture, large equipment, modern methods of instruction, positive Christian character, where students of small means may receive the very best instruction at moderate cost, will continue and grow more imperative with passing years. We believe that Doane College has such possibilities, and that it is for the Congregationalists of Nebraska to say how


largely these possibilities shall be realized. In order to realize them, Doane College must have a material equipment second to no college in the West.
     "7. It is not the aim of this report to enter largely into the individual needs of our different institutions. These are presented in the special printed and other reports at hand. Nor is it in the province of this committee to apply the principles of Christian education to these different institutions. They are applying them themselves, and are their own best exponents of their right to be and their right to ask a generous support. But your committee does feel convinced that, if these institutions of Christian learning are to have a healthful,. vigorous development it must be through the generosity of Congregationalists in Nebraska. One college and five academies looking for financial support and for students among two hundred churches, a large number of which are on the home missionary list, is a heroic test of faith! It is not to be wondered at that these institutions afford examples of painful self-sacrifice and self-denial.
     "It is evident that the growth of these institutions will depend largely upon the growth of Congregationalism in the state. The enlargement of the work of our Home Missionary Society will enlarge the foundation for their greater prosperity.
     "The growth of our churches must precede the growth of our educational institutions, or churches and institutions will enter upon a period of arrested development. 'The denomination which educates' is the denomination which evangelizes that it may educate. The churches must be the base of our educational pyramid and furnish the power which generates the light streaming from its apex through college and academy, a light to the world, or that light will be flickering and uncertain, and leave us in total darkness when electrical storms of agnosticism, infidelity, and pessimism


are upon us. For the sake of Christian education in Nebraska, increase the Congregational forces in the state. And, for the sake of an enlightened Congregationalism, enlarge the equipment and increase the efficiency of our Christian institutions of learning.

"M. A. BULLOCK,               
"L. A. TURNER,                    
"J. H. BEITEL,                       
"Committee on Education."10

10 Minutes, 1900, pp. 50-54.

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