There is an air of romance surrounding the accounts of the discovery of Nebraska by white men. The facts which we possess are hardly disputable, but they lack that definiteness of detail that is the delight of the historian.
   Coronado was a Spaniard who came over to Mexico in early manhood, in search of adventure, wealth and station. He married the daughter of Estrada, who was the royal treasurer, and who administered the government during the investigation into the charges against Cortez. Early in the spring of 1540, he organized an expedition in search of the seven cities of Cibola, and of the stores of wealth with which the northern countries were invested by the Indians. He reached the seven cities and found the stories of their wealth to be false. The natives pointed to the eastward as the land he was in search of.
   Under the direction of a deceitful Indian, he continued his journey to the east and north. His own account relates that they reached latitude 40, which is the southern boundary of Nebraska. Here was the city of Quivera, under the rule of Tartarrax, a white-haired chief. Pushing northward, they reached a large river, in August, 1541, where they erected a cross, on which was inscribed, "Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, General of an expedition, reached this place." He then returned to Mexico.
   One of Coronado's company, a Franciscan friar, John of Padilla, returned with a small band in order to teach




the natives the Christian religion. His fate is left to conjecture.


   In 1719, Bienvillo, the governor of Louisiana rent a French officer, Dutisne, from New Orleans, into the northern and western portions, of the French possessions. He visited the Osage Indians, the Pawnees and the Paducahs. The two latter tribes had their homes in Nebraska. That he traversed the prairies of Kansas is pretty evident, and that he reached as far north as the present borders of Nebraska, is highly probable; else how could he have reached the tribes of Pawnee and Paducah Indians.
   In 1721, Charlevoix named and described the different tribes of Indians residing upon the Missouri, and stated their location with as much accuracy as though he had personal knowledge of the subject. The information was more accurate than usually comes through Indian channels.
   Soon after 1724, there were French explorers who penetrated westward and northward from St. Louis, along the west bank of the Missouri. That they reached northern Kansas is certain and that they trod the soil of Nebraska is probable. Neither their names nor the exact dates of their explorations are given.
   On the 11th of July, 1804, the Lewis & Clark expedition encamped for the night on an island at the mouth of the Nemaha river. They also visited the shore at the mouth of the Platte, and at other points as they journeyed up the river.
   In 1805, Manuel Lisa, or Lesa, a wealthy Spaniard, visited the site of Bellevue, and gave it its name.
   As early as 1808, a steamboat came up the Missouri river as far as the mouth of the Platte.
   In 1811, a portion of Hunt's expedition to the Columbia river returned by the way of the Platte river, embarking upon its northern branch and descending to the Missouri.




   In 1812, a party belonging to the Pacific Fur Co., coming east with dispatches, came down the Platte to the Missouri, as Hunt's men had done.
   In 1819, Major Stephen H. Long, of the U. S. army, was sent up the Missouri to examine into the workings of the Indian treaties. The following year, he headed an exploring party up the Platte river, to the junction of its two branches.
   In the latter part of May, 1835, Col. Henry Dodge, of the United States army, left Ft. Leavenworth with an expedition-party for the Rocky mountains. The party followed the western bank of the Missouri river nearly as far north as the mouth of the Platte. Then they followed the Platte to its source and returned by a southern route, by the way of the Arkansas river.
   Fremont's expedition to the Rocky Mountains, in 1842, passed through a portion of the state, entering it from Kansas, probably in Jefferson county, and passing through Kearney and up the Platte.


   As early as 1810, the American Fur company established an agency on the present site of Bellevue, and in 1823 the government removed its Indian agency to the same place from Council Bluffs.
   In 1842, Peter A. Sarpy came to Bellevue as the agent of the American Fur company, and remained at that point for thirty years.
   In 1814, the United States built a fort on the present site of Nebraska City; the place was called Fort Kearney. This station was removed to the new Fort Kearney, south of the present city of Kearney, in 1848.
   Shortly after the removal of the United State's troops, the American Fur company occupied the site of the old fort and established a post there.




   In 1845-6, the Mormons halted in the state on their way westward, after being driven from Nauvoo, Illinois. They made their headquarters on the site of what was afterward the village of Florence, just above Omaha. Bands of them wintered at different points, some over at Council Bluffs, some at Plattsmouth and others near Bellevue, while their scouts were examining their future home near Salt Lake. The Mormons established and operated a ferry boat near the site of Plattsmouth in 1848, but that was abandoned when the tribe moved westward.
   In 1847 or 1848, the exact date is not known, a school was established at Council Creek, up the Platte river from Bellevue, and another at Bellevue. The former, established a few months the earliest, was seen afterward abandoned on account of the Indian troubles.
   The gold-fever of 1849-50, et seq., brought a continuous stream of passengers across the plains of the state. Bellevue was the entrepot of the stream, until Plattsmouth, Nebraska City, Omaha and other points had established ferry boats and routes of travel. A ferry boat and permanent settlement were in 1852 established at Nebraska City, and at St. Deroin, in Nemaha county, in 1853. A permanent foot-hold was made by white men on the present site of Omaha in July, 1853, and a ferry boat put in at that point.
   In 1852, a settlement was made at Salem, Richardson county; and also one at, or near, Beatrice, in Gage county in 1854-5. Later, in 1857, a party of 35 persons, established a colony in Gage county, and laid the foundation of the city of Beatrice.


   The territory included in the present state of Nebraska, was included in the Louisiana purchase. In 1712, the en-




tire tract of country between the Alleghany mountains and the Rocky mountains was granted by the French government to a wealthy French merchant named Anthony Crozart. The grant was relinquished at the end of five years. Then came the John Law scheme and the grant to the Mississippi company. Settlements were successively made along the banks of the Mississippi from New Orleans to St. Louis.
   After the British conquest of Canada, the Louisiana territory, or province, was ceded to Spain in 1762. It remained Spanish territory for 38 years. The treaty by which France obtained possession and title again was dated October 1, 1800.
   In 1803, September 30, by treaty between France and the United States, the whole territory, west of the Mississippi river was ceded to the United States. The territory north of 33rd degree of latitude was erected into the District of Louisiana, October 31,1803, and the government committed to the officers of the territory of Indiana.
   In 1805, March 3, this part of that territory was re-attached to, and became a portion of the territory of Louisiana, with James Wilkinson as the first governor.
   In 1812, June 4, the territory of Missouri was organized, and the limits of that territory included the present state of Nebraska. The state of Missouri was admitted into the Union in 1821, and thereafter, for a period of nearly 20 years, there was no territorial authority over the broad plains of Nebraska--no authority but the general government, exercised through the Indian bureau or the war department. The territory was then attached to the U. S. judicial district of Missouri, for judicial purposes.


   As early as 1851, attempts were made in Congress to prepare the rich lands west of the Missouri for settlement. Before the country could be permanently settled and legal




titles obtained to the lands, there must be the extinguishment of the acknowledged Indian titles and the erection of some sort of a government.
   In 1851, and later in 1852, movements were made in Congress for an organized condition of things in the district now embraced within the limits of Kansas and Nebraska. The restless spirits of Missouri and Iowa wanted an outlet farther west.
   No progress was made in the matter of a government until December, 1853, when the bills introduced by Senator Dodge, of Iowa, and by representative Richardson, of Illinois, were put through, so amended as to make two territories, and to repeal the Missouri Compromise. The bill making a territory of Nebraska received the signature of President Pierce, May 30, 1854.
   The tract included in the territory embraced all the land west of the Missouri river to the summit of the Rocky mountains, and from the 40th parallel of latitude to the British possessions; including 351,558 square miles.
   The government provided by the organic act consisted of a Governor, Secretary, a Chief Justice, two Associate Justices, a Marshal, an Attorney, and a Legislature, consisting of a Council of thirteen members, and a House of Representatives, of twenty-six members. The Governor had authority to locate the seat of government until the first session of the legislature, when the Governor and legislature, together, were authorized to establish it for the future.
   The first officers of the, territory were:

Governor, Francis Burt, South Carolina;
Secretary, T. B. Cuming, Iowa;
Chief Justice, Fenner Ferguson,. Michigan:
Associate Justice, James Bradley, Indiana:
   "      "   , Ed. R. Hardin, Georgia;
Marshal, M. W. Izard, Arkansasl;
Attorney, Experience Estabrook, Wisconsin.




   The Governor arrived at Bellevue, the then seat of business and politics in the territory, October 7, and took the oath of office on the 16th. He was ill when he arrived, and he died on the 18th.
   Upon his death, the secretary, T. B. Cuming, became acting governor, and continued in that capacity until Governor lzard, of Arkansas, successor to Governor Burt, arrived.
   In October and November, Acting Governor Cuming caused a census to be taken of the inhabitants of the territory. It is evident that a very large proportion of the population at that time were speculators and were of a floating character. The number returned by the census takers was 2,732.
   The territory was divided into eight counties, namely; Burt, Washington, Dodge, Douglas, Cass, Pierce, (now Otoe,) Forney (now Nemaha) and Richardson.
   Acting Governor Cuming located the seat of government at Omaha, and called an election for members of the legislature, and a session of the legislature, so elected, to be held at Omaha, January 16, 1855. At the election, December 12, 1854, a legislature was elected, and also a delegate to Congress. For this last office, there were 800 votes cast.
   The first legislature and the Governor established Omaha as the capital of the territory, after a most exciting session.
   Governor Izard resigned during the session of the legislature of 1857-8, and Secretary Cuming acted as Governor until the arrival of Governor Richardson, January 12, 1858.
   The first legislature of the territory consisted of the following members and officers:




   COUNCIL. J. L. Sharp, President.
Burt county, B. R. Folsom.
Cass county, Luke Nuckolls.
Dodge county, M. H. Clark.
Douglas county, T. D. Goodwell, A. D. Jones, O. D. Richardson, S. E. Rogers.
Forney county, Richard Brown.
Pierce county, A. H. Bradford, H. P. Bennet, C. H. Cowles.
Richardson county, J. L. Sharp.
Washington county, J. C. Mitchell.

   The officers were:
Chief clerk, Dr. George L. Miller.
Assistant Clerk, O. F. Lake.
Sergeant at Arms, S. A. Lewis.
Doorkeeper, N. R. Folsom.

   HOUSE, A. J. Hanscom, Speaker.
Burt county, J. B. Robertson, A. C. Purple.
Cass  "    H J. M. Latham, Wm. Kempton, J. D. H. Thompson.
Dodge county, E. R. Doyle, J. W. Richardson.
Douglas county, W. N. Byers, Wm. Clancy, F. Davidson, Thos. Davis, A. D. Goyer, A. I. Hanscom, A. J. Poppleton, Robert Whitted.
Forney county, W. A. Finney, J. M. Wood.
Pierce county, G. Bennet, J. H. Cowles, J. H. Decker, W. H. Hail, Wm. Maddox.
Richardson county, D. M. Johnson, J. A. Singleton.
Washington county, A. Archer, A. J. Smith.

   The officers were:
Chief Clerk, J. W. Paddock.
Assistant Clerk, G. L. Eayre.
Sergeant-at-arms, J. L. Gibbs.
Doorkeeper, B. B. Thompson.



   The local machinery of government was provided for; a criminal code, based on the code of Iowa, was adopted, and the delegate to Congress was instructed to use his best influence to secure the passage of a homestead law for Nebraska. As this was one of the earliest movements in the direction of a homestead law, it is worthy of note here that, after the passage of the homestead law, by Congress, the first entry made under that law was made in this state--in Gage county, on Cub Creek, 4 miles west of Beatrice, by Daniel Freeman. The patent is numbered 1, and is recorded in volume 1, on page 1, of the records of the Land office at Washington.
   Educational affairs also received attention. The Simpson University, at Omaha; the Nemaha University, at Fontenelle, and the Nebraska City Collegiate and Preparatory Institute, at Nebraska City, were incorporated.
   Another census was taken in 1855. This is more accurate than the one of 1854, and shows a considerable gain in population and wealth.























   The auditor's report shows that the valuation of property in the territory that year was $617,822.00.


   The provision of the organic act concerning slaves and slavery was in these words: "It being the true intent and meaning of this act not to legislate slavery into any territory or state, nor to exclude it therefrom, but (to) leave the people thereof perfectly free to form and regu-



late their domestic institutions in their own way, subject only to the constitution of the United States."
   As a consequence of this neutral position of the general government upon this question, legislation in respect of slavery in the territory came within the jurisdiction of the territorial legislature as much as did any other matter of local law. Many of the territorial officers brought slaves into the territory, and in many other instances there were known to be persons held as slaves in the territory before the legislature had taken any action in the matter. It was not until 1858 that the legislature took cognizance of this subject. On the first day of November of that year, Samuel G. Dailey, afterward delegate to congress, presented a bill to abolish slavery in the territory. There was serious opposition to the bill, principally for the reason that the legislature had a large amount of very important business before it, which would be inevitably jeoparded by an extended discussion of this question, which at that time was hardly less than one of abstract ethics. The divided report of the committee to whom it was referred was laid on the table, and so the bill was killed for that session.
   At the succeeding session, December 7, 1859, William H. Taylor presented to the council a bill of the same character. The committee to whom it was referred consisted of a majority opposed to it and the bill was slaughtered. On the same day, T. M. Marquette, afterward a member of Congress, presented a bill of the same character to the house. This passed the house but was killed in the council.
   The opponents of slavery did not rest, but they succeeded in passing a bill on the 3d of January, 1860, abolishing slavery in the territory of Nebraska. This bill was vetoed by Governor Black, on constitutional grounds. In December, 1860, another bill for the same purpose was




passed by the legislature and again vetoed by Governor Black. This bill was passed over the veto, January 5, 1861, and became a law, and it has ever since so remained.


   The first Indian trouble of any note seems to have occurred in the spring of 1855. There were depredations committed upon the settlers in Dodge county, supposed to have been done by the Pawnees, but they stoutly denied all participation in them and attributed the work to the Poncas. A commission was sent to confer with the Pawnees, in reference to the matter, of which there was no satisfactory result. In the meantime a military force had been organized, with John M. Thayer, as brigadier general, and with two skeleton regiments. The military was not called into action.
   In the summer of 1859, occurred the so-called Pawnee war. The settlements along the Elkhorn river were attacked, their stock killed or driven off, fences and houses burned, but it is not reported that any lives were lost. Early in July, General Thayer with a company of light artillery started for the theater of the trouble. On the 6th, Governor Black, followed by a company of United States dragoons, and a company of volunteers from Omaha, started to his assistance. The total force consisted of a little over 200 effective men. The territorial troops did not have an opportunity to show their fighting qualities, for the Indians surrendered as soon as they were found.


   Considering the class of people by whom Nebraska was settled, it may well be expected that the opening and progress of the war of the rebellion were regarded by them with keen interest. Early in the summer of 1861, several companies of home guards, for protection against




possible Indian defections, were organized in different parts of the state. In June the nucleus of a regiment was formed, and companies began to be mustered into the service of the United States for the organization of the 1st Nebraska infantry. The regiment was fully completed in July, 22d, by the entrance of the final company. John M. Thayer was commissioned colonel of the regiment. This regiment moved southward, July 30, and joined the movement against Price, under Fremont. They did duty as scouts and vedettes, in the southern part of Missouri, until they were sent with the army for the reduction of Ft. Henry. At Ft. Donaldson, whence they next were sent, they received the baptism of fire in a regular battle, and bore themselves in an admirable spirit. The regiment participated in the battle of Pittsburg Landing, April 7, and did some hard fighting on that noted day. They took part in the advance and capture of Corinth, and then, later in the summer, were sent to Arkansas. Here the regiment was transferred into a cavalry regiment and the men were furnished with horses.
   The history of the regiment among the mountains of Arkansas is a series of marches, scouts, small engagements, successes and defeats and a steady advance into the confidence of the commanding officers for reliability and efficiency. The portion of the regiment that re-enlisted, as veterans, in 1864, was sent to the western portion of the state, where efficient duty was done in protecting its settlements from invasions of hostile Indians.
   The 2d Nebraska cavalry was organized in the fall of 1862, as a protection from the Indians whom rebel emissaries were instigating to deeds of depredation and blood. R. W. Furnas was its colonel. The regiment was not completed until the spring of 1863. In April of that year, it was sent to join the expedition of General




Sully, who was operating against the hostile Indians of the upper Missouri river. It participated, with distinguished honor and weight, in the great battle of Whitestone Hills, about 200 miles above Pierre, in Dakota, on the 3d of September. The regiment lost seven killed and fourteen wounded and ten missing. The Indian loss was one hundred and fifty killed, three hundred wounded and two hundred prisoners. This battle practically closed the Indian war in that direction, and the regiment was mustered out later in the month.
   In addition to these two regiments, there were several independent companies and battalions that did good service in various ways. The Curtis Horse was an organization of four companies, which were subsequently merged with the remnants of the 6th Iowa cavalry and under that name participated in many of the important operations in Kentucky and Tennessee, even extending its theatre of efficiency into Alabama.
   Upon the muster out of the 2d Nebraska cavalry a battalion of veteran cavalry of four companies was formed and assigned for duty in the western portion of the state.
   The general government, and the department commanders, upon several occasions, testified, in general orders, their appreciation of the efficiency and ability of the Nebraska soldiers who aided in various ways to preserve the union of states intact, and the Legislature of the territory, in 1864, expressed its appreciation, by joint resolution, of the heroism and self-sacrifice, as well as spirit, of the many Nebraska soldiers of that conflict. Considering the population of the territory and the recentness of its settlement, the number of soldiers which it sent to the war in various directions is remarkable.


   During the territorial condition of Nebraska, it had five governors and two acting governors, as follows:




   Francis Burt took the oath of office October 16, and died October 18, 1854.
   Thomas B. Cuming, the Secretary, became acting governor until the arrival of Governor Burt's successor.
   Mark W. Izard assumed the duties of governor, February 20, 1855, and resigned early in the session of the legislature, which convened December 8, 1857. The date of his resignation is not found.
   The secretary, Thomas B. Cuming, became acting governor until the arrival of Governor Izard's successor.
   William A. Richardson assumed the duties of governor January 12, 1858, and resigned December 5, of the same year.
   During the time from his resignation until the arrival of his successor, the secretary, J. Sterling Morton, acted as governor.
   Samuel W. Black arrived May 2, 1859, and at once assumed the office of governor. On the 24th of February, 1861, the governor resigned, went back to Pennsylvania and raised a regiment of troops for the war. On the 27th of June, 1862, he was killed at the battle of Beaver Dam Creek, while leading his regiment. Until the arrival of Governor Black's successor, J. Sterling Morton acted as governor.
   Alvin Saunders assumed the office of governor, May 15, 1861, and continued in the office until the territory was admitted as a State, March 1, 1867.
   During its territorial status, Nebraska was represented in the congress of the United States by the following delegates:
   Napoleon P. Giddings, term ending March 4, 1855.
   Bird B. Chapman, term ending March 4, 1857.
   Fenner Ferguson, term ending March 4, 1859.
   Experience Estabrook, term ending March 4, 1861.
   Samuel G. Daily, two terms ending March 4, 1865.
   Phineas W. Hitchcock, term ending March 1, 1867.





   At the beginning of the session of the legislature of December, 1869, the earliest attempt was made to change the condition of the territory to that of a state. In the early days of December, a bill was introduced into each house, authorizing a vote upon the proposition to call a convention to frame a constitution. On the 4th of January, 1860, the bill became a law, and a vote was taken March 5th. The vote was, for the convention, 2,095; against the convention, 2,872; So the attempt was a failure.
   During the session of the Congress of 1862-3, a bill was presented authorizing Nebraska to take the preliminary steps toward the assumption of statehood. The session closed before final action was taken.
   Later, in 1864, April 19th, an act of Congress was passed authorizing the territory of Nebraska to frame a constitution preparatory to admittance into the Union as a state At that time, the continuance of the war for the Union, and the consequent disturbance of Indian affairs, rendered this permission not desirable. Under the drain of men and money for the suppression of Indian hostilities, and for the support of the Union army in the more extended field of war movements, the people felt too poor in men and money for the increased responsibilities which Statehood would impose. But after the return of peace, and the renewal of immigration, and the sequent influx of wealth, the people re-awoke to the consciousness of the value of a state government. Accordingly, February 9, 1866, a convention was authorized, and a constitution was framed and submitted to the people June 2, 1866, for approval or disapproval. The people, by a vote of 3,938 to 3,838 adopted the state charter. At this election, a member of Congress was elected to serve for the residue of the term then ensuing, and T. M. Marquette




 was elected by 4,821 votes over J. Sterling Morton, who had 4,105 votes.
   The newly adopted constitution provided for a session of the first legislature July 4, 1866. At that session machinery was provided for the state government, but the refusal of President Johnson to approve the bill for the admission of the young state left the territorial machinery in working order. That session elected the senators, who were General John M. Thayer, who had won distinction at the head of the 1st Nebraska volunteers, and Rev. Thomas W. Tipton, chaplain of the same regiment.
   At the regular election provided for under the constitution, state officers were elected as follows:
Governor, David Butler.
Secretary of State, Thomas P. Kennard.
Auditor, John Gillespie.
Treasurer, Augustus Kountze.
Attorney General, Champion S. Chase.
Member of Congress, John Taffe.
   When Congress convened, in December 1866, another bill for the admission of Nebraska was introduced, and in January it was passed. The President vetoed the bill, which was quickly passed over the veto.
   The act as passed provided that it should not take effect until the newly organized state should, by its legislative will, assent to the fundamental condition that, in the state, there should be no denial of the elective franchise, or any other right to any person by reason of race or color, excepting Indians not taxed. This proviso was added because the constitution of the state restricted the elective franchise to white persons, while the constitution of the United States had already been amended to abolish slavery.
   A special session of the state legislature was held Feburary 20, to pass upon this proviso. The terms of the




proviso were speedily assented to, and, according to the provision of the act, the President issued his proclamation March 1, 1867, declaring the acceptance of the terms and the full admission of Nebraska as a state.
   The first legislature made early provision for a removal of the capital from Omaha. Three commissioners were appointed to relocate the seat of government. The commissioners selected the present site of Lincoln, and on August 14, 1867, the capital was officially declared located at Lincoln.
   In February, 1871, the house formulated articles of impeachment against Governor Butler, of misdemeanors in office in regard to transactions in the sale of school lands and the disposition of the proceeds of such sale, and of an attempt to extort money for his official action. The articles of impeachment were sent to the senate, March 1st. On the 1st day of June, after a long trial of nearly six weeks, a vote was taken and he was declared guilty of unlawfully and corruptly neglecting to discharge his duties in regard to some school money. On all the other charges the governor was pronounced not guilty. By this conviction of the governor, the secretary of state, Wm. H. James, became acting governor, and so continued until the inauguration of Governor Furnas in January, 1878. The records of that impeachment were expunged from the legisIative journal by the legislature in 1877.
   During 1871, a strong sentiment developed in favor of a radical change in the constitution. Accordingly, a convention was held and a new constitution was framed. Upon its submission to a vote, it was rejected by a vote of 7,686 to 8,627.
   But the restlessness of the people, under the cumbrous and unsatisfactory constitution of the state, could not be allayed. The legislature of 1873 again submitted the question of another constitutional convention. The vote




was taken at the regular election in 1874, and, at the session of January, following, the legislature provided for a convention to be held early in the summer. The constitution framed by that body was approved at the October election by 30,202 to 5,474. This is the constitution under which the people of Nebraska now live.
   The following figures will Show the rapidity with which the state has grown. At the various censuses, the population was found to be as follows:























  The governors of Nebraska, since its admission as a state, and the date of the beginnings of their terms, are as follows:
   David Butler, March 1, 1867.
   Wm. H. James, June 2, 1871.
   Robert W. Furnas, January 13, 1873.
   Silas Garber, January 11, 1875.
   Albinus Nance, January 9, 1879.
   James W. Dawes, January 4,1883.

   During the same time the senators and members of the house of representatives have been as follows, with the beginnings of their terms:

   Thomas W. Tipton, March 4, 1867.
   John M. Thayer, March 4, 1867.
   Phineas W. Hitchcock, March 4, 1871.
   Algernon S. Paddock, March 4, 1875.
   Alvin Saunders, March 4, 1877.
   Charles H. Van Wyck, March 4, 1881.
   Charles F. Manderson, March 4, 1883.




      Members of House--
   T. M. Marquette, March 2, 1867.
   John Taffe, March 4, 1867
   Lorenzo Crounse, March 4, 1873.
   Frank Welsh, March 4, 1877.
   Thomas J. Majors, December 2, 1878.
   Edward K. Valentine, March 4, 1879.

    Upon the division of the state into three congressional districts, after the United States census of 1880, the following members of the House were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1883:
   1st district, A. J. Weaver.
   2nd district, James Laird.
   3rd district, E. K. Valentine.

    In 1884, Weaver and Laird were re-elected, and George W. E. Dorsey was elected to succeed Valentine in the 3rd district.


   The idea of a railroad to the Pacific dates back to a very early year. In its crude shape, it contemplated Oregon as its western terminus. After the acquisition of California, the idea was modified so as to make that state the objective point of the road. In 1850, Senator Benton started the movement in Congress, by the introduction of a bill for building a Pacific railroad. In his message to the legislature of the territory of Nebraska, at its first session, on the 12th of January, 1855, Acting Governor Cuming named a Pacific railroad as one of the principal subjects of general interest to which the attention of that body was called, and he asked the passage of a memorial to Congress on the subject. One month later, M. H. Clark, member of the Council, and chairman of the committee on corporations, reported favorably upon a charter to the Platte Valley & Pacific Railroad company. In




the report, he predicted that the period was not remote when the work would be accomplished.
   Congressional action culminated in the passage of the bill that became a law by the approval of President Lincoln, July 1, 1862. The corporation was formally organized October 26, 1863. There was much discussion with reference to the initial point of the road. The convergence at Council Bluffs, of the roads that spanned the state of Iowa, forced the selection of Omaha as the starting point in Nebraska, and, on the 2d of December, 1863, the location was made and the ground formally broken at that point.
   To aid the building of the road, the government donated to the company every alternate section of land on each side of the track for a distance of twenty miles. The donation aggregated about 12,000,000 acres. Before 1866 had passed, the road had reached farther west than the present western boundary of the state.
   In 1869 the. Burlington & Missouri River railroad had reached the Missouri river. In the same year the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad company in Nebraska was organized to extend from Plattsmouth to Kearney. The government donated in its aid every alternate section on each side of its track for ten miles; the state also donated 50,000 acres, the whole aggregating 8,432,000 acres. About the same time the Omaha & Southwestern railroad company was organized to extend from Omaha to Beatrice, and the state gave 100,000 acres of land to aid it. This company was absorbed by the Burlington & Missouri before either had made great progress in laying its track in the state.
   Since then, the Nebraska Railway, and the Atchison & Nebraska road built into the state and have been absorbed by the Burlington & Missouri. This company has also extended its main road and branches until




it has filled the South Platte country with a net work of iron.
   In the country north of the Platte, the Sioux City & Pacific has built extensions, while the Chicago & Northwestern and the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha have come in for a share of the traffic. The Union Pacific has also built branches, both north and south of the Platte, and has absorbed the St. Joseph & Denver road.


1.  State what you know of Coronado.
2.  What expedition did he organize, and when?
3.  What farther expedition did he engage in?
4.  How far is he supposed to have gone, and what did he find?
5.  What is known of the expedition sent out by Bienville?
6.  What is said of Charlevoix and his knowledge of the Indiana of Nebraska?
7.  What explorations were made soon after 1724?
8.  What explorers visited Nebraska in 1804 7 What is said of them?
9.  What is said of Lisa?
10. Who were the first white voyagers on the waters of the Platte, and when?
11. Who were the second, and when?
12. What is said of Major Long's explorations?
13. Describe the route, and date of Col. Dodge's visit to Nebraska?
14. What of Fremont's?
15. When, where, and by whom, was the first settlement made in Nebraska?
16. What fort was first built in Nebraska; where and when?
17. What is said of the Mormon visitation to the state?
18. When and where were the first two schools established in the state?
19. What is said of the events of 1849 and subsequent years?
20. What settlements were made in 1852 and subsequent years?
21. To what nation did the territory included in the state of Nebraska originally belong?
22. To whom was it granted?




23. What nation next owned it?
24. When and how was it obtained by the United States?
25. How was it governed up to 1812?
26. What change was made in its government at that date?
27. How was it governed up to 1854?
28. When were the first attempts made to secure a territorial organization?
29. Describe those efforts and their results.
30. How large a tract was included in the territory of Nebraska as organized?
31. Of what offices did its territorial government consist?
32. Can you name the persons who filled those at first?
33. State about the first Governor.
34. When was the first census taken, and with what result?
35. Into how many counties was the state divided? Name them.
36. Where was the seat of government first located?
37. When did the first legislature convene?
38. Who was the second Governor of the territory? How did his office terminate?
39. Who was the third Governor, and when did he take the office?
40. Give the list of members of the council.
41. Give the list of the members of the house of representatives.
42. What was done by the first legislature?
43. What is meant by the local machinery of government?
44. What is said of the homestead law?
45. What educational institutions were chartered?
46. When was the second census taken, and with what result?
47. What was the assessed valuation of property in 1855?
48. What did the organic act say on the subject of slavery?
49. How did that affect the jurisdiction of the territorial legislature?
50. Were there any slaves in the territory?
51. When and how was action first taken on the subject of slavery, by the territorial legislature?
52. Wily did the action fail?
53. Describe the action of the succeeding legislature on that subject.
54. What is mid of the action of the legislature and of the Governor, in 1860, on this subject?
55. When did the act prohibiting slavery become a law, and how?




56.When and where occurred the first Indian trouble? Describe what occurred.
57. Describe the events of the so-called Pawnee war.
58. Why would the early settlers of Nebraska be expected to take an active interest in the war of the rebellion?
59. When were troops first raised?
60. When was the first regiment organized and who was its commanding officer?
61. What is said of the action of the regiment during the early years of its service as infantry?
62. When did it become a cavalry regiment? Describe its history as such.
63. What became of the regiment after it re-enlisted as veterans?
64. Describe the organization and history of the second regiment of cavalry.
65. In what notable battle did it engage and with what result?
66. What other military organizations did the territory send into the field during the war?
97. How were the services of the Nebraska troops regarded by the military authorities of the United States?
68. How by the territorial legislature?
69. Can you give a list of the territorial Governors, with the periods of their service?
70. Name the delegates to congress.
71. What action was first taken, and when, toward the admission of the territory as a state?
72. Describe the action taken afterwards.
73: When was the enabling act passed?
74. Why did not the people of the territory take advantage of it?
75. When was action finally taken under the enabling act, and what was that action?
76. What is said of the first session of the state legislature?
77. Name the first state officers.
78. When was the bill passed to admit Nebraska as a state, and what became of it?
79. What provision did the act contain that required action on the part of the state legislature?
80. When was that action taken?
81. When did Nebraska become a state?
82. What is said about the re-location of the state capital?
83. When was Governor Butler impeached, and for what?
84. What was the result of the trial?
85. What action did the legislature of 1877 do in the matter?




86.  What effort was made, and when, to change the constitution?
87.  What further action was taken, and with what result?
88.  Can you state the population of the state at its several censuses?
89.  Can you name the state Governors, and their forms of service?
90.  Can you name the U. S. senators, and their terms of Service?
91.  Also the members of the house?
92.  What was the original idea of a Pacific railroad?
93.  What modified that idea?
94.  When was the first congressional action taken about this road?
95.  What was said about the subject in the territorial legislature of Nebraska, and when?
96.  What was Clark's report on the Subject?
97.  When did the Pacific railroad bill become a law?
99.  How came Omaha to be the starting point, in Nebraska?
99.  To what extent did the U. S. government aid the work?
100. What is said about the B. & M. road?
101. What about the 0. and S.W. road?
102. What has the B. & M. road done since?
103. What roads have been built north of the Platte?
104. What has the U. P. road done since?




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