Government. The normal school is governed by a board of education, consisting of the state superintendent, state treasurer, and five other persons who are appointed by the Governor, one each year, and who serve five years.

   Power. This board has full control of the management and government of the school, selects its principal and other teachers, fixes their Salaries and assigns their duties.

   Funds. In 1869, the legislature set apart twenty sections of land for the support of the normal school, and the proceeds of sale were to be a permanent fund. This fund is insufficient for the support of the school, and the legislature makes an annual appropriation for its maintenance.

   Scope. This school teaches those branches, only, that teachers of the state are required to understand in order to secure certificates. The dead languages are not taught in it. The students are also trained in the art and theory of teaching. The object is to train teachers. Those who graduate in the lowest course receive a certificate that entitles them to teach two years, and those who graduate in the higher course receive a certificate good for three years, anywhere in the state.


   Private schools, academies and colleges are not strictly a part of the educational system, but they are, nevertheless, doing much in the way of education. Of these, there are eight which now rank, or have laid the foundation for soon ranking, as first class colleges, and they are all under the control of associations of churches. The Bellevue college and Hastings college, are supported by the Presbyterian denomination; Doane college, at Crete, and Gates college, at Neligh, by the Congrega-




tional; the university, at Fullerton, and the M. E. college, at York, by the Methodist Episcopal; Nebraska college, at Nebraska City, by the Protestant Episcopals; and Creighton college, at Omaha, by the Roman Catholics. In addition to these there are the following schools that teach their pupils classical studies: The Blake School, Beatrice; the Bloomington Normal; Fairfield Normal; Baptist Seminary, Gibbon; Oakdale Seminary; Brownell Hall, Omaha; and Pawnee City academy. The following also deserve mention: Fremont Normal and Business College; St. Claire Hall, Lincoln; Schoenberger Hall, Nebraska City; Wyman Commercial College, Omaha; St. Wenceslaus, Omaha; and Silver Ridge Seminary. All are doing good work in their several lines. Some are supported entirely from tuition fees, while others, such as the colleges, have large endowment funds in addition, for their maintenance.


   1.  What is the reason for the educational system?
   2.  When are school meetings held?
   3.  Who may vote at school elections?
   4.  What may the voters do at a school meeting?
   5.  What officers have school districts?
   6.  What are the duties of the different school officers?
   7.  Who may teach and who may not?
   8.  How many grades of teachers' certificates are there?
   9.  What is requisite for a certificate of the third grade?
   10. How many certificates of this grade may one person obtain?
   11. What is requisite for a certificate of the second grade?
   12. What of the first grade?
   13. Who issues the certificates of these three grades?
   14. What is the other grade of certificate? and who issues it?
   15. What are the duties of a county superintendent?
   16. What are the duties of the state superintendent?
   17. How many classes of teachers' institutes are there? and describe them.
   18. How are the expenses paid?
   19. How many sources of school funds are there and what are they?




   20. Explain the first, taxation.
   21. What schools may receive the state tax?
   22. Explain the permanent school fund.
   23. Explain the third source.
   24. How is the state university governed?
   25. Describe the organization of the university.
   26. From what source does the university derive funds for its maintenance?
   27. What is the government of the Normal school?
   28. How is it maintained?
   29. What is its scope?
   30. What private schools of high grade are there in the state?
   31. How are they supported?



    We have seen that each county must care for the poor within its own borders. A republican government recognizes that, while each individual owes a duty to the whole people to preserve the state organization, so the whole people owe to each individual of the state the duty of caring for him when he is unable to care for himself. The paupers who require ordinary care, only, can well be provided for by each county.

   But, there are other classes of unfortunates who require, not only more care, but more skillful treatment and more expensive buildings for such treatment. The state finds it more economical to take these classes of unfortunates under its own care, and to bring them all into hospitals by themselves. For this purpose, the state provides hospitals, with all the needed appliances of buildings and attendants, for the insane, blind, deaf and dumb and the friendless.


    This institution is located at Lincoln. It is under the general control of the state board of public lands and




buildings. The chief executive officer is the superintendent, who is appointed by the Governor for a term of six years. It is required that he be a physician of acknowledged skill and ability in his profession. He has entire control of the medical, moral and dietetic treatment of the patients. He has an assistant physician, appointed by the Governor, and a steward, matron, and other employes, appointed by himself, and for whose conduct he is responsible.

   In each county, there is a board of commissioners of insanity, consisting of three persons, of whom the clerk of the district court is one; the judge of the district court appoints the other two members, of which one must be a physician and one an attorney, to serve two years.

   The friends of a person believed to be insane make application to the commissioners of insanity for his admission to the hospital. At once, the commissioners take testimony concerning the matter. If they find that the person named is insane, he is delivered to the sheriff of the county, with a proper warrant, and is conveyed to the hospital.

   A person confined in this institution has the right to the writ of habeas corpus to test if he be really insane. Each county bears the expense of the treatment of its own insane.

   The legislature of 1885 provided for the location of another asylum at Norfolk, and appropriated funds for the erection of the necessary buildings. The board of public lands and buildings has charge of their erection.



    This is really a school for the education of those who cannot see, although efforts are constantly made to improve the sight of those who are deemed not incurable. This school is located at Nebraska City and it is under




the control of the State board of public lands and buildings. This board appoints the principal, matron and other employes.

   All blind persons of the state and of suitable age and capacity to receive instruction, are entitled to free admission. Each county superintendent is required to report annually to the principal of this school, the name, age, residence and postoffice address of each blind person in his county. The state pays all the expenses of the education and maintenance of the inmates of the school, except that the inmates, their friends or the counties of which they are resident, must bear the expense of their clothing.


    The asylum for this class of unfortunates is located at Omaha and is governed by the State board of public lands and buildings. This board employs the principal, matron and other teachers and assistants. The inmates receive all the instruction in mental, physical and moral culture possible to that class. All deaf and dumb persons, resident of the state, of suitable age and capacity to receive instruction, are admitted to the enjoyment of all its benefits. The state pays all the expenses of education and maintenance.


    This Home is at Lincoln. The property part of it is under the control of the State board of public lands and buildings. The operations of the home are directed by the Society of the Home for the Friendless. This society is a voluntary organization and is supported by offerings of the charitable. The state appropriated the money for the erection of the building. This home receives and cares for, to the extent of its means, all the friendless and needy of the state who do not come within the juris-




diction of any other institution. The society is composed entirely of women, and the superintendent of the home is a woman, and is appointed by the society of which she is a member.


    This institution is located at Kearney, and is governed by the state board of public lands and buildings, which appoints the superintendent, steward and other employes. The superintendent has charge of all the property and of the operations of the school.

   When a boy or girl, under the age of sixteen, is found guilty of a crime, other than murder or manslaughter, the district court is authorized to enter an order sending the offender to this reform school. With the offender and the order, the judge sends a statement of the nature of the offense committed. Inmates of this institution remain until arrival at age or until discharged by legal authority. A discharge by arrival at age is a full and final discharge from the penalties of the crime. The state pays all the expenses of admission, maintenance, instruction and release.



    This is not wholly a punitive institution, although its inmates come to it as a punishment for violation of law. The name given to it, Penitentiary, indicates that it is intended as a reformatory, a place of penitence. Many moral philosophers hold that criminal intent is a disease, and that all criminals are entitled to our sympathy and good offices. The acceptance of a shade of this idea will be found in all our criminal laws. Hence, a consideration of the penitentiary comes fitly under the head of reformatory and charitable institutions.

   This institution is located near to the city of Lincoln and is governed by the state board of public lands and




buildings. The immediate government is in the hands of a warden and deputy warden, who are appointed by the Governor and senate to serve two years.

   All persons convicted of a felony are sentenced to confinement in this institution, many of them are also sentenced to hard labor. For the purposes of labor, shops, tools and other appliances and machinery are provided, so that all the common mechanical trades can be carried on by convicts. The labor of the convicts is leased to a contractor who puts this labor to such uses as he chooses. He may sub-lease it, or a part of it, to others, or use it himself. The lessee receives from the state a certain amount per head for the cost of keeping the prisoners, and he assumes to pay all the expenses of feeding, clothing, guarding and caring for them, while he receives the returns of their labor.

   When prisoners enter the penitentiary, they must have their hair and whiskers cut close, and they are dressed in clothing of white and black stripes. This is done as one of the precautions against their escape.



    The Nebraska Institute for Feeble Minded Youth is located at Beatrice, and is controlled by the board of public lands and buildings. The board appoints the superintendent, who must be a physician. Upon the recommendation of the superintendent, the board appoints a matron and other teachers and employes. The Institute is to provide shelter and protection, instruction and improvement to the feeble minded youths of the state, at the expense of the state, except for clothing and transportation.


   1. What classes of people does the state care for in public institutions, and why?
   2. Where is the asylum for the insane, and under what government is it?




   3.  Describe the means taken for sending insane persons to that asylum.
   4.  Where is the asylum for the blind, and how is it governed?
   5.  Who maybe admitted to it?
   6.  What expenses are paid by the state?
   7.  Where is the asylum for the deaf and dumb, and how governed?
   8.  Who may be admitted to it?
   9.  Under what control is the home for the friendless, and how supported?
   10. Where is the reform school, and how governed?
   11. Who may be admitted, and how?
   12. How are inmates discharged?
   13. What kind of an institution is the penitentiary?
   14. Where is it located, and how governed?
   15. Who are admitted, and how?
   16. What institution is at Beatrice?
   17. How is it managed?



   As we have seen, the legislature determines what persons are liable to military duty and it may provide for organizing and disciplining the military. The Governor is the commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces, except when they are called into the service of the United States, and he appoints and commissions all the officers of those forces. The Governor appoints the adjutant general and such staff-officers as he may deem best.
     Who are Liable. Every able-bodied male citizen, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years; except (1) officers of the United States, (2) state officers and county officers of the state, (3) all persons who are members of any religious society or organization by whose creed, or discipline, the bearing of arms is forbidden. In order to obtain such exemption the person must present to the enrolling officer proof that he is entitled to it.

   Active Militia. The active militia is called the "Nebraska National Guards," and consists of not more




than two thousand men, and is formed by voluntary enlistment for three years. In case of immediate need the active militia will be the first called out.

   How Divided. The 'Nebraska National Guards" consists of two regiments of infantry; one company of artillery, and two battalions of cavalry; each battalion to consist of not less than two companies, nor more than three companies.

   Officers. Each company has one captain, two lieutenants, five sergeants, eight corporals, and two musicians. The regimental officers consist of one colonel, one lieutenant-colonel, one major, one surgeon, one chaplain, one adjutant, one quartermaster, one sergeant major, one commissary sergeant, one quartermaster sergeant, one hospital steward, one drum major and one fife major. Each regiment may also have a band of not less than twelve members nor more than twenty members.

   The whole militia of the state is under the immediate command of a brigadier-general who has a staff consisting of an adjutant, a quartermaster and two aids-de-camp, appointed by himself. All officers, except staff officers, are elected by the officers and men of their respective commands.

   Exemptions. The officers and men of the active militia are exempt from working on roads or streets, from the payment of poll tax, and from the duty of sitting upon any grand or petit jury.

   Drill. The active militia must meet for drill by company or by regiment, one day annually, in September, at such time and place as shall be designated by the general in command. The infantry are required to meet annually or biennially, on the order of the commander-in-chief, between the tenth day of August and the twentieth day of September, and to drill four days. The colonel may require his regiment to perform semi-monthly




evening drills, from October to April, inclusive, of not less than one hour each evening.


   1. Who is commander of the militia?
   2. Who are liable to military duty?
   3. What is the active militia?
   4. How divided?
   5. Name the officers of its several corps.
   6. How are the officers appointed?
   7. From what are the militia exempt?
   8. When and how much must the militia drill?



    Originally, this was a voluntary association, formed for the purpose of collecting and preserving such facts and other historical data as may be serviceable in securing a full history of the state. The officers consist of a president, two vice-presidents, a secretary and a treasurer. It has an annual meeting for hearing such reports and addresses as may be made to it, embracing the subject of its existence. Reports are annually made to the Governor, embracing all its transactions and expenditures. The reports, addresses and papers of the society are published at the expense of the state, and are distributed as other state documents are distributed. In 1883, the legislature, by special act, reorganized and adopted the society as a state institution, and appropriated the sum of five hundred dollars for its use and benefit. The society has its headquarters at Lincoln.



    State Library. There are two divisions of this library, the miscellaneous division and the law division. The miscellaneous division contains all the works of general literature and science, history, travel, biography,




etc., and the state documents. The law division consists of all the books of reports and other law books. The clerk of the supreme court is librarian. The librarian makes annual reports to the Governor of the condition of the books under his charge.

   Libraries in Cities. The council of any incorporated town or city may, by ordinance, establish a public library and reading room. They elect nine directors who must be citizens. Three are elected every year, in June, to serve three years. These directors have full control of the library and its property, make rules and regulations for its government, appoint agents to attend to it, and make all expenditures of money in its behalf. The council may levy a tax, not exceeding one mill on the dollar, for its support and maintenance. The board may purchase grounds, erect buildings, or lease rooms. It reports annually to the council, the condition of the books and property, and the receipts and expenditures of money. The library and reading room are free to all citizens of the city or town. Parties residing outside may use the library and reading room on payment of a reasonable fee.


    The convention that framed the constitution of 1875, adopted and submitted to the voters, as a separate proposition, a section providing that the seat of government shall not be removed, nor relocated without the assent of a majority of the electors of the state, who vote thereon. The evils of frequent changes of seats of government are apparent. They disorganize public morality and tend to political corruption. Especially is this more apparent when the legislature has control of the removal or relocation of the capital. The legislature then becomes the objective point of corrupt schemes, and hardly a member, however pure and honest, can escape the suspicion of




venality. The people have as much interest in the location of the capital as has any politician. The people, at the election of 1875, ratified the action of the convention and adopted the proposition as a part of the constitution. The capital, therefore, cannot now be moved until the people are heard on the subject at the polls.


   The constitution and laws-of the United States provide that the United States senators shall be elected by the legislature of each state. There is a large class of political demagogues who chafe under these provisions, and who want the people to elect all the officers. They dream that their interests can be better served in a rattling campaign, in caucuses, in conventions and at the polls, than before the more judicial determination of the legislature. This class was strong enough to induce the constitutional convention of 1875 to submit to the voters a proposition for a vote of the people upon the selection of United States senator. This proposition was adopted at the polls and is now a part of the constitution. Under it, the legislature enacted a law authorizing the people, at the general election just preceding the election of United States senator, to express their preference for such officer. The futility of the authority is apparent inasmuch as there is no way to make the popular expression effective. The legislature has the sole power and the sole responsibility in the matter. At only one such election has any interest been taken in the vote, and then only 356 votes were cast, and the one who had the highest number of votes was hardly mentioned in the legislative contest, while the person who was elected received but four votes at the polls.



    To entitle one to practice medicine, or surgery, he must be registered as such. This consists of filing with the




county clerk of the county in which he indends (sic) to practice, a statement in writing and under oath, giving his full name, age, place of birth, place of residence, place of business and the time during which he has practiced medicine or surgery, and places of such practice, the medical societies of which he may be a member, and the medical college of which he is a graduate, and its location. In order to legally practice as a physician he must be a graduate of a chartered medical college, authorized to grant the degree of "Doctor of Medicine," or have taken a full course of lectures in such an institution and practiced medicine continuously for three years, of which the last year must have been in this state. When a person publicly professes to be a physician, or prescribes for the sick, for pay, be shall be regarded as practicing medicine.


   This officer is appointed by the Governor for a term of six years. There is no limit to the number that may be appointed, in any county. Petitions for appointment must be signed by twenty-five legal voters of the county. He is required to give a bond in the sum of two thousand dollars with two sureties.

   A notary public may, within the county for which he was appointed, administer oaths and affirmations; take depositions, acknowledgements and proofs of the execution of deeds and other papers that must be acknowledged, and protest commercial paper for non-acceptance or non-payment. He has a seal by which his signature and official acts are certified



   To entitle one to admission to the courts as an attorney, he must study two years in the office of a practicing attorney, prove his good moral character, and pass a satisfactory examination in the principles of the common law.




   Upon admission to practice he must take an oath to support the constitution of the United States and the constitution of this state, and to faithfully discharge the duties of an attorney and counselor to the best of his ability. Persons coming here from other states, with certificates from the higher courts there, may be admitted without examination.

   Duties. It is the duty of an attorney:
   1. To maintain the respect due to the courts of justice, and to judicial officers.
   2. To counselor maintain no other actions, proceedings or defenses, than those which appear to him legal and just, except in the defense of persons charged with crime.
   3. To employ for the cause confided to him, only such means as are consistent with truth.
   4. To preserve the confidence and secrets of his client.
   5. To abstain from all offensive practices, except such as are required by the justice of the cause he represents.
   6. To permit no motive of passion or interest to influence him in any action.
   An attorney may be disbarred for deceiving the court.

   Powers. An attorney has power to sign ordinary bonds in the action for his client, to have control in all the proceedings of the courts, and to bind his client by his agreements therein, and to receive money for his client in settlement of actions, and to discharge judgments and actions when fully paid.
   An attorney has a lien upon papers, property and money in his hands, belonging to his client, for the balance of his fees.


   The board of fish commissioners was organized in 1879. It consists of three persons, who are appointed by the Governor. One is appointed each year, and serves three years. The board has entire charge and supervision of




the public waters, pertaining to the collection, propagation, cultivation, distribution and protection of the fish in the state. It establishes hatching boxes, etc., for preserving and hatching spawn and fry, and distributes to the public waters of the state. It also makes like distribution of fish spawn, donated to the state by the United States. It gives special attention to the enforcement of the laws relative to the protection of fish and fisheries in the state. The board makes an annual report to the Governor of its action, with details of the same.


    How Obtained. 1. The law makes all section lines public roads, and they may be opened in the same manner that other roads are opened, except the preliminary survey.
   2. Roads maybe established by the written consent of all the owners of the land that is used for the purpose.
   3. Persons desiring the location of a road, present to the county board a petition, signed by ten voters who reside within five miles of the proposed road, particularly describing the road wanted, and asking its location. The county clerk appoints a commission to examine the proposed route, and to report if a road is needed in that place or near it. If the commission reports in favor of the road, or of one that will answer the purpose of the one asked for, the county clerk sets a day, not less than sixty days thereafter, and publishes a notice for all objections to be filed in his office. If there are no objections to the road, and no claims for damages filed, the board will establish the road at its next session.
   If there are objections or claims for damages, the clerk appoints three suitable and disinterested electors as appraisers to examine and to assess the. damages.
   At a subsequent meeting of the board the damages




may be increased or diminished, or left as awarded by, the appraisers.
   The petitioners for the road pay all the damages and costs of this proceeding. If they consider the damages awarded too high, they may appeal to the district court. If the person damaged by the location of the road regards the award too small, he may appeal in like manner.
   When roads are located they are platted and recorded in the office of the county clerk.

   How Worked. For the purpose of working roads, the county board divides each precinct or township into as many road districts as it deems best. In each district an overseer of roads is elected at each general election, and he has charge of the roads in his district, under the general direction of the county board, and he is bound to keep the roads in as good condition as the funds will permit.
   All male inhabitants between the ages of twenty-one and fifty, except paupers, idiots and lunatics and the active militia are assessed three dollars a year as a road tax. Three-fourths of this tax may be paid in labor at $1.50 a day, and the other part must be paid in cash, in order to buy scrapers and materials for bridges, culverts, etc.
   The overseer of roads makes settlement with the county board at the annual session in January, and may be called to report at any other time.
   Public roads are free to all people, on foot, on horseback, or in vehicles.



   1. What is the object of the State Historical Society?
   2. What reports does it make?
   3. What are the two classes of public libraries?
   4. How is the state library governed?
   5. How are city libraries governed?
   6. Who may use city libraries?




   7.  What is the constitutional provision with reference to the seat of government?
   8.  What is the reason for it?
   9.  How may the voter express his choice for United States Senator?
   10. What effect has the expression?
   11. How may a person have permission to practice as a physician in the state?
   12. How are Notaries Public appointed?
   13. What are the duties of those officers?
   14. What will entitle one to practice in the courts as an attorney?
   15. What are the duties of an attorney?
   16. What are his powers?
   17. How and by whom are the members of the Fish Commission appointed?
   18. What are the duties and powers of the Commission?
   19. How are roads obtained?
   20. What is done when there are objections to a road, or claims for damages?
   21. How and by whom are roads worked?






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