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he has lived in the city, where his clean and spotless life, his genial disposition and pronounced ability won him a host of friends, whom he has fortunately retained. For some seventeen years he has been in the dry goods business; lately he has been president of the hardware company, an institution organized and set in motion by him in 1904. He is a director of the business men's association of Kearney, and in that way has been able to greatly promote the welfare of the city. His public interests are many and varied and in a history of Kearney and Buffalo county his name would appear many times.

     Mr. Gregg is a native of Bracken county, Kentucky, where he was born in 1865. He was reared in Kentucky and educated in Wheaton, Illinois, College. After attending Wheaton College, Mr. Gregg taught school for one year at Albion, Iowa. He came to Ashland, Nebraska, in the spring of 1886 and was in the clothing business for Hon. H. H. Shedd. In 1887 he married Miss Maude Taylor. He came to Kearney in 1890 to engage in business and has since been prominently identified with the business interests of Buffalo county.

     C. H. Gregg was on the city school board for five years, and his familiarity with school matters made him enthusiastic in the work of securing the location of the state normal at this point, an achievement largely due to his knowledge of the situation, his tireless zeal and his ability to approach men. In 1904 he was appointed a member of the State Board of Education, and served on the executive committee until the completion of the normal at this point. Its construction was under his management, and what has been done here is largely due to his energy and marked business ability. The normal is an enterprise of much moment, and it has cost up to date (1906), more than $50,000. Mr. Gregg served on the furnishing committee. The land on which the normal stands consists of twenty-four acres west of town and at the head of Twenty-fifth street. The location of such an institution was agitated as usual a considerable time, and there was intense rivalry for its location, fifteen towns seeking to have it in their midst. The contest for the normal is one of the historic struggles of the state. The business men of Kearney united in the effort to bring it to this city, and appointed a strong committee of the best men of the place, with Mr. Gregg as chairman, to work for it. Mr. Gregg's known business ability, and his strong personality, coupled with social qualities of a high degree, and backed by the natural advantages and splendid location of Kearney, in addition to the work of a strong committee and pledges of $50,000 in cash for the institution, gave Mr. Gregg a long start in the struggle, and he threw himself into the fight to win. He watched the progress of the bill through the legislature, and staid right there until the bill for the appropriation and the location had safely gone through, and was duly signed. More than a thousand pupils were enrolled the first year, and what this school means educationally, socially and materially to Kearney, even the most sanguine have not realized.

     Mr. Gregg gives close attention to his mercantile interests and at the same time has been a shrewd investor in Buffalo county realty, having at different times owned several farms, which he has sold at good profit.



     Joseph G. Armstrong, residing at Rushville, Nebraska, was born in the province of Ontario, Canada, in 1850. His father, Alexander Armstrong, was a merchant in Millbrook, Toronto, born in the north of Ireland, and his mother was of English birth. The family consisted of eight children, of whom he is the third member, and when he was five years old his parents came to the United States, locating at Fairfield, Iowa. Here he was raised and educated until he was eighteen years of age, then came west to Wyoming, obtaining employment on the Union Pacific railroad as a fireman, and followed this for two years. From there he went to southwestern Nebraska and took up a homestead and tree claim, also preemption, and proved up on all three. He lived in a dugout, later sod house, then log house, and hunted buffalo all over that part of the country and into Colorado. He followed a typical hunter's existence, camping out half the time, and roughed it winter and summer. He has camped out at night when the ground was covered deep with snow, being two hundred miles from any settlement, when the woods were overrun with wild animals of all descriptions, and passed through many exciting and dangerous experiences.

     For twelve years Mr. Armstrong made Beaver City, Nebraska, his home, during that time working at freighting from Cheyenne to the Black Hills. On more than one occasion on these trips his wagon was fired into and he had

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narrow escapes from the Indians. For eight seasons he drove large bands of sheep from New Mexico to Nebraska, South Dakota and Kansas. In 1884 he first came to Rushville, driving in from the Black Hills country. He located in the town of Rushville, buying land, and established a bank in 1886, this being the second bank opened up here. He continued in this enterprise for twenty years, and also during that time has been engaged in the land business, dealing in Colorado and Mexican lands. In 1889 he established the Rushville Mercantile Company, which is now one of the largest stores in the place. This concern occupies a building 25x100 feet, with basement, and they do an immense trade through the county. Mr. Armstrong still owns large ranching interests in Cherry county, dealing in stock raising constantly. He has accumulated a large and valuable property thorough his industry and good business ability, and is numbered among the leading men of this section, who has always done all in his power to promote the best interests of his community, and his name will go down in history as a prominent old-timer of Nebraska.

     Mr. Armstrong was married in April, 1889, to Miss Mary E. Jack, whose father, George B. Jack, was one of the early settlers in Sheridan county. Two boys have been born to them, George J., born in January, 1891, and Joseph T., born in December 1898. In political faith Mr. Armstrong is an independent.



     Peter Thies, one of the leading most influential of the pioneers of western Nebraska, lives in a pleasant ranch home on section 24, township 14, range 38, in Keith county. Mr. Thies has traveled a great deal and lived in a number of different states, and now after a long life of useful endeavor has established himself in comfortable circumstances and is considered one of the well-to-do citizens of the community.

     Peter Thies first saw light in the village of Wormaldange, near Luxemberg, (sic) the capitol city of the Grand Duchy of Luxemberg, (sic) under the protectorate of Holland, February 2, 1844. His father, John Thies, had an estate on the Moselle river, and was a miller and wine-grower in the old country. His ancestors were Hanovarian. Like all his race he was of a martial sprit and took part in the revolution in which Holland and Belgium were engaged. One of the family was a general in Napoleon's army. His mother, Magdelina Punell, was of French ancestry. In coming to America in 1857, the family visited relatives in Paris for a week before sailing from Havre on the old sailing ship "Santa Anna." After a voyage of fifty-six days, during which Peter became enamored of the life of a sailor, they landed in New Orleans. Then they ascended the Mississippi river to St. Louis, where a month was spent visiting relatives who had preceded them to the new world. The father settled in Iowa county, Wisconsin, where he started a brickyard, which he operated until the outbreak of the civil war. Peter's enlistment deprived him of his bookkeeper and manager. Our subject was reared in Wisconsin and was tutored by John Commons of the public schools, an Irishman, to whom, in turn, Peter gave lessons in the French language, which he knew as fluently as the German, Dutch and Luxemberger (sic) tongues.

     When the civil war broke out, our subject enlisted in Company E, Thirtieth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry at Mineral Point. He was in the detached service scouting and on police duty and was in many dangerous situations during the time he gave to his adopted country. For a time his command was stationed at Milwuakee to enforce the draught and because of his intelligence and aptness in clerical work was assigned duty much of the time under General Pope. In 1863 he was sent into Minnesota to engage the Sioux Indians, capturing many and putting an end to the Indian war. They marched across Minnesota to Fort Ridgeley and thence across the plains where they built a fort called Fort Wadsworth, later changed to Sisseton, returning to St. Louis in the fall. Later they were sent on a dangerous expedition hunting guerillas (sic) in Kentucky. His service was of long duration over a wide extent of country in which he experienced many perils. After the war was over, Mr. Thies returned to Wisconsin and was with his father for a time, going thence to Pikes Peak, Colorado, in the spring of 1866, and remaining in the far west with a brother until 1867. He again returned to Wisconsin where he married and engaged in agricultural pursuits, operating three farms during a period of six years, accumulating considerable means. His health still remained poor, and he again sought relief in the mountains of Colorado, residing in Central City four years engaged in mining when able to work. Going to Colorado Springs, he was employed in the mines for a year before being placed in charge of the stamping mills, which were running

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at a loss until he took charge. Returning to Wisconsin in such poor health that he had to stop off in Topeka, Kansas City, St. Louis, Chicago and Freeport to recuperate, he entered politics and was at one time candidate for city treasurer. In 1885 Mr. Thies sold out all his chattel property and came west to Keith county, Nebraska, settling on his present farm. He came to the new country principally for his health and also to furnish his children the opportunity of securing farm homes to a larger extent than could be done in the east. Mr. Thies found a country conducive to good health and he has built up a splendid ranch home of six hundred and forty acres and placed himself in very good circumstances. He has taken an active part in the affairs of his locality and has done his part toward the material advancement of the community. Together with his sons and daughters, he owns over four thousand acres of fine land, much of it in the immediate bottoms of the North Platte.

     In Wisconsin, October 5, 1868, occurred the marriage of Mr. Peter Thies to Miss Mary Wenner, a native of the village of Coutern, three miles from the capitol of Luxemberg, (sic) a daughter of John Wenner, a farmer, besides, being an architect and builder. He was intrusted with the keeping in perfect repair the fortifications of the city of Luxemberg, (sic) the strongest inland fortress in the world. Mr. and Mrs. Thies have had six children; Mary Kathrine, who died in Colorado and was buried in the cemetery at Central City, Colorado; Mary May Magdalena, wife of George Williams, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work; Michael J., a ranchman, of Keith county; John, accidentally killed at Sidney, Nebraska; Perry J., also engaged in ranching on the North Platte, and Annie V., one of Keith county's most successful teachers, now perfecting her title to a Kincaid claim north of her brother's ranches in Keith county.

     Mr. Thies is a stanch Republican in political views. He was reared in the Catholic church in the old country. He was made a Mason at Black Hawk, Colorado, and was member of the Ogallala Post, Grand Army of the Republic.



     B. F. Hastings, a banker of Grant, Nebraska, is one of the leading men of his community as well as one of the old settlers in western Nebraska, and to his efforts and influence during the past many years have been due much of the prosperity enjoyed by the residents of that region.

     Mr. Hastings was born in McHenry county Illinois, in 1863, and reared on a farm there, where his father was among the pioneers, he a native of Connecticut, as was also, his mother. Our subject received a good common school education and later attended the Oberlin College and graduated with the class of '86 in the classical course, and the same year came to Nebraska, locating at Crete and entering the law office of George H. Hastings. In December he came to Grant and filed on a homestead near the town, proved up on it in due time and made it his home for some time. In 1888 he was admitted to the state bar, and nominated for county judge, receiving the election and served for four years in that capacity, then begun (sic) the practice of law. He built up a good patronage and was most successful., and in 1900 was appointed county attorney, serving since that time as such. In 1899 he established a banking and loan business, carried it on for several years, and then organized the Commercial Bank of Grant in 1905, of which he is president and general manager.

     Besides his banking business Mr. Hastings is quite heavily interested in the lumber and coal business at Madrid, Nebraska, also in farming and ranching in Perkins county. He is a gentleman of excellent business ability, a first-class financier and one who has the entire confidence and esteem of his fellowmen.

     Mr. Hastings was married in 1890 to Miss Elizabeth Buckland, daughter of David Buckland, an early settler of New York state, where she was born and raised. Mr. and Mrs. Hastings have an interesting family of four children, all born in Perkins county, and named as follows: George, Irene, Louise and Charles.



     The estimable lady who bears the above name is one of the early settlers in western Nebraska, and is well known throughout the state as a successful attorney and prosperous business woman. She is a woman of high literary attainments, possessing a highly gifted mind thoroughly educated, and recognized as one of the leading citizens of Dawes county, esteemed and admired by everyone in the region. Mrs. O'Linn and her daughter reside in Chadron, where they have one of the pleasantest homes the city affords.

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     Mrs. O'Linn was born in Birmingham, Iowa, in 1848, and is a daughter of Daniel Egbert Brainard, a prominent attorney and judge of the circuit court of Iowa, who served on the bench for thirty years. He was a native of New York state, born at Watertown in 1809, and married Elizabeth Anne Pickett, a Kentuckian. General Pickett of the southern army, being her own cousin, and Senator Clark, of Kentucky, her uncle. The Pickett family were prominent members of the old southern aristocracy, many of the male members occupying high positions in public life in the earlier days. Our subject was reared and educated in Iowa, graduating from the state university in 1865, and after leaving college, followed the profession of a teacher at Magnolia. She was married at the latter place in 1868, to Dr. D. H. O'Linn, a rising young physician of that city, and they had a family of three children, namely; Daniel Egbert, Hugh Brainard and Elizabeth Anne, of but the last named is now living, widow of Clarence C. Smith, of Chadron, and mother of two children, Frances Minerva and Henry Holden.

     In 1872 the family moved to Blair, Nebraska, and were among the pioneers of that town, Dr. O'Linn practicing his profession up to 1880 when he died, deeply mourned by his family and friends. Mrs. O'Linn was principal of the schools at Blair and Tekamah for many years, resigning her position as such in 1884, when she first settled in Dawes county. Here she took up a homestead and built a log house, the place being located on the White river, now called Dakota Junction. She remained on the place until proving up on her claim, and it was while living there that her son, Egbert, was killed by the accidental discharge of a gun, while attempting to scare away the range cattle from their hay stacks. The region was then very sparsely settled, and there were not enough neighbors to bury him, so the mother was herself compelled to do her share of the work of preparing him for burial.

     In 1885 our subject moved to Chadron, and was the first postmistress at that town, the office having been just established, and she carried on that work for several years, and had previously held the same office at the Junction, which was called O'Linn, named so by the cowboys for the son, who was killed. She took up the study of law during this time, following the work she had already done with father, and in 1887 was admitted to the bar of Nebraska, and in 1891 to the supreme court of Nebraska, and also, on October 17, 1893, admitted to the bar of the supreme court of the United States. She has become well known throughout the country as one of the most brilliant lawyers in the profession, and as a woman of great intellectuality and strength of character. Mrs. O'Linn practiced from that time on, and in addition to attending to her practice, is engaged in the settlement of estates, titles, doing abstracting and all the branches of the work. She is also interested in the insurance business and has a large clientage (sic) throughout Dawes and the surrounding county.

     Her second son, Hugh Brainard O'Linn, was killed by being thrown from a train just east of St. Louis, July 8, 1899. He was returning home from Central America, where he had been sent by the Associated Press.

     Her son-in-law, Clarence Cinclair Smith, was killed at Harrison, Nebraska, August 10, 1907, by being run over by a train, thus depriving, for the third time, the family of a loved one in a shocking and heart-rending manner, without a moment's warning.

     Mrs. O'Linn is a lady of charming personality, broad-minded and liberal in her views of people and things, and her name will occupy a prominent place in the history of the state of Nebraska.



     Charles Callahan, proprietor of the electric light plant of Sidney, Nebraska, is a gentleman of wide experience in the business and has met with excellent success in his career.

     Mr. Callahan is a native of Indianapolis, Indiana, born in 1861, and is a son of John P. Callahan, of American stock, engaged in the nursery business in Indiana. Our subject grew up in the city of his birth, and from the time he was twelve years of age he hustled for himself, learning the printer's trade when a boy. He later worked in Chicago, St. Louis, and for a time was in Canada, and most of his education was self-taught, gained through contact with business men and in travel. In 1884 he first struck Sidney, and for a time worked on The Telegraph, purchasing a half interest in that organ in 1886, two years later buying the whole paper and was sole proprietor and editor up to 1891. He left Sidney for a time, spending about four years at Omaha, Hot Springs, and other places, always engaged in newspaper work. In the fall of 1894 he came back to Sidney and again took up his position as editor and proprietor of The Telegraph, and

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continued in that capacity for eight years. In 1897 he was elected postmaster of Sidney, and held office for five years, proving a most capable official, well liked by all. He was one of the organizers of the First National Bank of Sidney, started in 1902. He was also engaged in the banking business at Sidney, but sold out his interests. He now owns a fine business block. In 1905 our subject established the Sidney electric light plant, and is now sole owner and operator of the concern, the plant being built in duplicate to avoid a shut-down in case of accident to machinery.

     In 1899 Mr. Callahan was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Cleburne, daughter of Joseph Cleburne, an old-timer of Cheyenne county, and pioneer previous to 1870. Our subject is a Republican, and takes an active part in local party matters. He is a thirty-second degree Mason.



     Edgar M. Traver, residing on section 7, township 22, range 44, Deuel county, Nebraska, has built up a comfortable home and enjoys the esteem of all who know him. He was born in Clinton county, Iowa, in 1865, and raised on his father's farm. He is a son of Cyrus Traver, a native of New York, whose ancestors were among the early settlers on the Hudson river. He was a farmer, and his wife, who was Abby Moorehouse, is also a native of the same state; her family having settied on the Hudson river on landing here from Holland in early pioneer days. Our subject's father was married twice, and had a family of seven children, of whom he was the third member in order of birth. He left his parents' old home and came west in 1885, driving one thousand miles by team accompanied by his father and one brother, following the line of the Chicago & Northwestern railway. They settled in Box Butte county, Nebraska, the father taking a homestead in section 26, township 25, range 48, and our subject also took up a preemption on coming of age and held this for eight years, and had also taken up a homestead during this time. He followed farming part of the time, and was on this place during the dry years, and also drove the mail stage in 1890, which was one of the worst years in this section. He had made quite a little money up to this time, but spent it all to pull through the hard times, and was compelled to sell his land and go into the cattle business to make a living.

     In 1895 he came to the sand hills and located on a farm here, and started out with one cow. Here he put up hay and baled it. hauling this to Lakeside and in this way paid for his cow. It was slow work getting a start in the cattle business when he had so little capital, but he gradually added to his herd and made a success of the business. He has a farm of six hundred and forty acres of deeded land now, and uses his brother's hay ranch for feed for his stock, of which he has two hundred head of cattle and about twenty horses. He has bought and paid for all of his place excepting an additional homestead of four hundred eighty acres. He is well satisfied with this region, and will remain here as long as he has to work for a living as his family likes the country and there is an excellent school within half a mile of his farm. His family consists of his wife, whose maiden name was Miss Maggie Schramling, whom he married in 1894, and their family of two children, namely. Elmer and May, both born and raised in this locality. Mrs. Traver is a daughter of Avery Schramling, of German descent, who was one of the first settlers in Jackson county, Iowa He was one of those who went through this state over the California trail during the go fever of 1849, and afterwards located on a farm in the above county.

     Mr. Traver gives all his time and attention to the building up of his home and farm, and has never held office, although he takes a lively interest in all local and state affairs. He votes the Republican ticket, always going for the best man. His postoffice is Lakeside.



     The gentleman above named is prominently known as one of the leading business men and worthy citizens of Kearney, Nebraska. Mr. Hoxie is president and founder of the Hoxie Grocery and Mercantile Company of that city, and is one of the public spirited men of this section of the country.

     Mr. Hoxie is a native of Vermont. He began his business career at the age of seventeen years. In 1883 he came to Nebraska from Ottawa, Illinois, locating in Lincoln. There he was principally engaged in the real estate and insurance business, and, like all energetic Nebraskians, in farming and buying and selling farm lands. He was deputy sheriff of Lancaster county, Nebraska, for four years, being appointed in 1891, and in 1897 he was appointed superintendent of the State Industrial


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School at Kearney, filling this position with credit for three years, retiring February 1, 1900. In March of that year he bought the grocery business of M. A. Nye, located on Central avenue, Kearney, and organized the Hoxie Grocery & Mercantile Company, with W. J. Vosburg, then assistant superintendent of the State Industrial School, as vice-president. In 1902 Mr. Vosburg retired from his position at the Industrial School and since that time has devoted all his time to the business. During the latter year the company bought the Nelson grocery store located on North Central avenue, which establishment is managed by Mr. Vosburg. The following year they purchased the Johnson store on South Central avenue, and at the present time own and operate these three stores. The business has grown steadily, and both Mr. Hoxie and Mr. Vosburg are known as two of Kearney's most successful business men. Mr. Hoxie is a member of the city council, representing the third ward, and has been in this office since 1904. He served as president of that body, and chairman of the financial committee, also a member of the streets and alley committee.

     Mr. Hoxie was married November 12, 1879, to Mary M. Atkinson, a native of Wheeling, West Virginia. Mr. and Mrs. Hoxie are members of the St. Lukes (sic) Episcopal church and Mr. Hoxie is one of the vestry men. Mr. Hoxie has a wide reputation as a business man of exceptionally good judgment, conservative in all matters of moment, and has gained the respect and confidence of his fellowmen. A portrait of Mr. Hoxie will be found on another page in this work.

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     The gentleman whose name heads this personal history is one of the old settlers of Nebraska, a gentleman of sterling character, honest, industrious, and who has made his mark in the affairs of his locality, and incidentally built up for himself a competence by dint of good management and thrift.

     Mr. Boyer was born in Grayson county, Virginia, in 1870. He father, Hugh, was a farmer and pioneer in Nebraska, and a sketch of him, also of two brothers, appear in this volume. When our subject was twelve years of age, in 1882, the family left Virginia and came west, settling in Madison county, Nebraska, where they rented a farm for about five years. He lived with his parents until he was above seventeen, then started for himself. following farm work at first, then learned the trade of a telegraph operator and worked at that off and on for a number of years. In 1890 he came to Cherry county, spent one summer, then went to California and worked as an operator for the Santa Fe & Los Angeles Terminal company, remaining in their employ for six years. In 1900 he returned to Nebraska and filed on a homestead on the Loup river, in Hooker county, northwest of Mullen, and there begun ranching and farming, living on that place up to 1905, then moved to his present ranch in section 28, township 25, range 32. He put up good buildings at the start, drilled wells and put up windmills, and has every improvement. The place contains nine hundred and sixty acres, about eighty acres of which is devoted to farming and the balance used as a stock ranch.

     In 1894 Mr. Boyer was married to Alice Osborn, a daughter of T. C. Osborn, who is a well known ranchman and old settler in eastern Nebraska, and one of the first homesteaders in Madison county. Two children have come to bless the union of our subject and his good wife, named as follows; Glenn, aged twelve years; and Lynn, aged ten years.



     In compiling a list of the prominent business and professional men of Alma, Harlan county, Nebraska, who have been intimately identified with the upbuilding of the commercial interests of that locality and are widely and favorably known, a foremost place must be given S. L. Roberts.

     Mr. Roberts is a native of Clark county, Ohio, born in 1845, near Springfield. He is a son of William V. Roberts, a native of Berkeley county, West Virginia, and his grandfather, Captain James Roberts, was captain of the Ohio troops in the war of 1812. In 1856 our subject's parents moved to Warren county, Iowa, and at the age of fifteen he enlisted in the Fifteenth Iowa Infantry, Company G, serving for four years and ten months. He was never off duty only when shot off, and was wounded at the battles of Shiloh and Atlanta. Was taken prisoner at Corinth, and paroled from Vicksburg in a few weeks and exchanged in January, 1863. He was all through the battles around Vicksburg and was at the siege of Vicksburg. He was with Sherman in the Georgia campaign, was with the company on their march to the sea, and through the Carolinas. He was mustered out

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at Louisville, Kentucky, and took part in the Grand Review at Washington.

     Mr. Roberts came to Harlan county, Nebraska, locating on a homestead in Alma in the year 1873, and seven years later moved into Alma, which had just been started as a town, the railway having been put through in 1879. He established himself in business as abstractor of titles, in 1890, and was one of the first trustees for the village of Alma in 1880. He served first the village, later the town, on the board and council for a number of terms. In 1895 he was elected county clerk and register of deeds, and was re-elected in 1897, holding office up to 1901. Back in the '80s he was justice of the peace for a number of years, and was on the school board in 1885, when the old school house was built, and has been a member off and on ever since then, and is now holding the office of president of the school board of Alma. They are this year building a fine new high school, to cost when completed, $25,000. This will contain ten rooms, and be an up-to-date, modern building in every respect.

     Mr. Roberts was married in 1872 to Miss Anna McGlathery, of Cass county, Missouri. One son, John W. Roberts, is now superintendent of the Alma city schools, appointed in 1906. He was born and raised in Alma and educated at the high school here, later attending the state university, graduating in 1904. For two years he taught Latin and German at Falls City high school, and at the end of that time was tendered the position he now holds, without having applied for it. One daughter, Grace A., is a graduate of the Alma high school, also the state university, entering the latter institution when but sixteen years of age, and was for two years teacher of mathematics and Latin in the city schools, retiring in 1905. She has a brilliant record as a scholar, both at school and later as a teacher. Mr. Roberts is a Democrat.



     The above mentioned gentleman is one of the prominent residents of North Platte, Lincoln county, Nebraska. He is editor and publisher of the Semi-weekly Tribune, established in 1885 by L. A. Stevens.

     Mr. Bare is a native of Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, and was reared and educated there. The North Platte Semi-Weekly Tribune was established in 1885 by L. A. Stevens, and in June of the same year our subject bought a half interest in the paper. In 1901 he bought the whole paper, and was sole proprietor. From the time of first getting an interest in it, he has been the editor and active member of the firm. This paper has been a Republican organ from the start and always taken a firm stand in upholding the party principles. It has always stood for the best interests of North Platte and its growth and advancement as one of the leading cities of western Nebraska, and been an earnest advocate of the schools and all improvements which would add to the prosperity of this locality. The paper started and led the fight which resulted in the building of the new high school in 1905, at a cost of $25,000, and the city still needs four more rooms to accommodate the pupils properly. The only debt which the town has is $30,0000 which was expended for sewers, and the city is now negotiating for the purchase of the water plant. This paper has also always dealt fairly by the Union Pacific railway, recognizing it as the principal factor in building up the city. It has a large circulation in this and the adjoining counties, and is the leading news medium of this locality. The job department is thoroughly equipped for executing orders promptly, and gives universal satisfaction.

     Mr. Bare was married in 1887 to Miss Mollie Thompson, of northeast Pennsylvania, and by which union a daughter and son are living.



     The gentleman whose name heads this personal history is the popular editor and manager of the Ainsworth Star-Journal, the oldest paper published in Brown county, Nebraska. This paper is a reliable news medium, and has a wide circulation all over Brown and the adjoining counties. The Ainsworth Star-Journal is the successor of the Western News, established in 1880, The Journal, The Star, The Idea, The Home Rule and The Herald.

     Mr. Cotton is a native of Indiana, born in 1853, of Irish descent. His grandparents were born in Virginia. His father, Isaac Cotton, was a farmer, and his mother was a daughter of John Morgan, a captain in the war of 1812. He is the elder of three children, and was raised in Iowa, where the family settled about 1855, locating on a farm in Story county. He received his early education in the common schools, and then attended the college at Ames, Iowa. In 1872 he was appointed a civil engineer on the Santa Fe railroad, and followed this work for some years. He then resigned

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that position and began teaching school. He was admitted to the bar in Nebraska, in 1875, and has the distinction of being the first person to be admitted to the supreme court on examination in that state. He is a graduate of the University Law School in Kansas, and subsequently practiced in Kansas for five years. After having had about two months' experience in the printing business he located at Louisville, Kansas, in 1880, and became editor of the Louisville Reporter. The former editor of that paper had been arrested and charged with a serious crime two months after Mr. Cotton had settled in Louisville, and he was asked to take charge of the paper, and also to defend the editor in the suit which was brought against him. After a hard fought legal battle Mr. Cotton secured his client's acquittal in spite of the fact that public sentiment was strongly against the man. In fact, although he was proven not guilty,. the feeling against him was so bitter that he was at once compelled to leave town. This, of course, left our subject as editor and manager of the Reporter. After some years in newspaper work he was on the road traveling for different lines of business, all over Nebraska, Iowa, North and South Dakota, Manitoba, Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Wyoming, Colorado and in some sections of Wisconsin and Michigan. He was engaged in the newspaper business in Lincoln for three years, also in Omaha for a time, and in 1903 located in Owatonna, where he acted as editor of the daily and weekly Journal for over two years. In the year 1905 he purchased the paper of which he is now editor and manager.

     Mr. Cotton was married in 1900 to Miss Nannie Remy, a native of Indiana, a daughter of Dr. G. O. Remy, of Ainsworth.

     Mr. Cotton has been very successful in his newspaper work, and is highly respected by the entire community for his active public spirit, and his paper is the exponent of all that tends to the advancement of the locality in which it is printed.



     The gentleman above named is a well known business man and respected citizen of Alliance, Nebraska. He has given liberally of his time and influence in building up the financial interests of the town, and has taken an active part in every movement to better the conditions of his community.

     Mr. Smith is a native of England, born in Lincolnshire, in 1856, of American parentage on his father's side, the latter having settled in England in his young manhood and there married Sarah Barton, of English birth. The father was a horse dealer, and when our subject was a boy the family came to America and settled in Iowa where he was reared and educated. When he reached the age of twenty-one years he begun (sic) railroading, beginning as a machine hand in the shops and working up to be engineer for the company he started with. He continued at this work up to 1892, the year previous having located in Alliance, and at that time was engineer on the Burlington railroad, having been with that company for fourteen years. In May, 1905, he met with an accident, and was obliged to quit the road. In May, 1906, he started in the livery business in Alliance, and has had a good patronage since the beginning. He has also been engaged in the real estate and land business here.

     Mr. Smith was married in 1884 to Miss Addie Brenanstall, daughter of R. R. Brenanstall, who is a large dealer in the hide and grease business at Creston, Iowa.

     Mr. Smith is a Republican politically, and active in party affairs. In 1906 he was elected a member of the town council, and the following year was nominee for mayor by all parties and elected by a goodly majority. He has been a member of the school board for a number of years, and is one of the leading public men of his community, enjoying a host of warm friends and the confidence and esteem of his fellowmen.



     One of the leading and most successful business men of Taylor, Nebraska, is the gentleman whose name stands at the head of this review. He has been engaged in the drug business ever since 1883 and has built up a large and prosperous trade. He is an enterprising and successful business man and has the esteem and confidence of the entire community.

     Mr. Emig was born in Columbus, Bartholomew county, Indiana, in the year 1849 and was the son of Michael and Permilla (Anderson) Emig, the former a native of Germany and the latter of New Jersey. The father was a barber by trade, and was a veteran of the Mexican war.

     George Emig was reared in Indiana, receiving a good education in the city schools.

Compendium of History Reminiscence & Biography of Western Nebraska

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Early in life he exhibited excellent business capabilities, learning the tannery and the boot and shoe business and also the drug line. At the age of sixteen years he was so proficient that he was placed in charge of thirty workers in the tannery and twenty employes in the boot and shoe department, and he followed this employment up to the year 1879. He then went west, locating on a farm at Ord, Nebraska, where he remained for two years. At this time he went into the drug business in the village of Ord, remaining there for four years.

     In 1880, while on a hunting expedition, he visited Loup county, and in 1886 concluded to make it his home. On arriving in Taylor, the county-seat, he purchased his present drug business which had been established in about 1884 by F. A. and Otto Witty. At that time the stock was very small and Mr. Emig began at once to enlarge it and make it adequate for the increasing demands of the trade. For twenty-two years it has been Mr. Emig's constant aim to make his store one of the most modern and up-to-date establishments in this part of the country. He has been a warm supporter of educational matters, assisted in the establishment of the independent school district and has been an active member of the school board.

     George P. Emig was united in marriage in 1876 to Miss Mary Matilda Whiteside, a native of New York state. Her father, William Whiteside, was born in Canada; her mother was a native of New York. Mr. and Mrs. Emig have two children: Charles M. and Emma.



     Among the popular residents of McCook, Red Willow county, none is better known or more universally esteemed than the gentleman above named, who has been mayor of the town for the past two years. Mr. Waite was elected in 1905, and succeeded himself the following year. His duties are many as McCook is growing very rapidly and its municipal government consequently becoming important, imposes a greater tax upon the time and ability of the mayor. During his term of office one of the most important and beneficial steps for the present and future good of the town has been inaugurated and completed, and much praise is due him for the very successful culmination of this enterprise. The sewerage system Is referred to by the above. McCook is much better situated than most western cities for sewerage disposal, being on high land overlooking the Republican River, and although it was an immense undertaking, it is now in full operation and proving an important factor in the growth and development of its industries and commercial value. This work will cost the town about $40,000. The main sewer is one mile long, and empties into the river, the laterals being from eight to nine miles in length. With the fine supply of water from the works put in here in the year 1883, McCook is thoroughly up-to-date in all respects,, and the health of the citizens and progress of the city is assured.

     Mr. Waite is a native of Vermont. He came to McCook in 1888, and in 1996 established a hardware business here and since locating has been one of the active-and successful citizens of the place. He is a director of the First National Bank. He has served the town as alderman for two terms. 'The city is building a new high school to cost between $40,000 and $50,000, and Mr. Waite was instrumental in getting this for the city. During the term of his office as mayor the Carnegie gift of $10,000 for a public library has been accepted, and the city has guaranteed a fund of $1,000 per year to support this, Mr. Waite having appointed the trustees for this.

     McCook has between four and five hundred B. & M. railway men residing here with their families. This is a division headquarters with the superintendent and many officials living here, also the roundhouse and machine shops are located here, which employ a large number of men.



     Simon Fishman is one of the prosperous business men of Sidney, where he is engaged in the general merchandise business and has built up a good trade through his industry and good managament (sic), and is deservedly placed in a high rink among the worthy citizens of that thriving town.

     Mr. Fishman was born in the village of Thisit, Germany, in 1880. His parents were Jews, and lived in Germany all their lives.

     Our subject remained at home until he as thirteen years of age, then came to America, and from that time on has made his own way in the world. He located in Trenton, Tennessee, and spent four years in that city. At the end of that time he came west to Sterling, Colorado, and there began working as a clerk and continued in this work for four years when

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