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large, commodious dwelling, with modern improvements, was completed in the fall of 1907. He endured many hardships and privations, witnessing the drouth, during which time his crops were utterly ruined two years, leaving him but scant forage for his cattle and little food for his family. However, he endured to the end, and now owns a farm of sixteen hundred and eighty acres, of which three or four hundred are under cultivation, with the balance devoted to meadow and pasture, seeded with alfalfa and brome grass. His ranch is improved with a fine set of farm buildings, well and windmill, and he also has a twenty-acre grove of splendid trees.

      November 1, 1876, Mr. Pettycrew was married to Miss Julia M. Carpenter, whose parents, John Milton and Frances M. (Billings) Carpenter, now deceased, were both old settlers in Cherry county, hailing from the state on New York. Mr. And Mrs. Pettycrew have two children, namely: Edyth, now Mrs. Frank Cowden, of Garnett, Kansas, and Earl, who lives with his parents. When Mr. Pettycrew settled on his present ranch his was the first white family living this far out in the county on what is called "the table".

      In political sentiment our subject is a Populist and has served as a delegate to conventions at different times, always taking an active interest in party affairs. He has always maintained that western Nebraska is a great country for the poor man, there being greater opportunities for advancement if one has energy and determination.



      This is a name very familiar to those acquainted with the leading ranchmen of Dawes county as that of a man who has acquired more than a local reputation for his industrious habits and high personal character. He is the owner and operator of one of the largest ranches in this part of the state, his residence being located in section 6, township 32, range 49.

      Mr. Buchanan was born in Hendricks county, Indiana, in 1856, a son of Ruben M. and Christina (White) Buchanan. His father was born in Kentucky, our subject believes, while his mother was a native of Ohio. When our subject was sixteen years of age his father died, after which he left his native state and went west into Missouri, settling in Gentry county, which place he made his home until 1885. In the spring of the year 1885 he came to western Nebraska, where he drove a team out of Valentine, filed and proved up the claim which is his present home. Only one who has had the experience of the early settler in this western country can well understand the hardships with which they had to contend in those early days. Many a time our subject walked to Chadron, from which place he pushed his supplies to the dugout which was the first home he knew in Nebraska. His first team was a yoke of oxen, broken in by himself. Too much credit cannot be given for the success which he has attained, and by his good management and unremitting labor he has made his ranch one of finest in Dawes county. He was not discouraged by the droughts of this western land, which he successfully withstood, but met all reserves in a business-like manner.

      Mr. Buchanan now is the proprietor of a well appointed ranch of twenty-two hundred and sixty acres, located on Deadhorse creek, fifty to one hundred acres of which are under cultivation. He has a large amount of stock, making a specialty of horses and cattle.

      In politics Mr. Buchanan holds to Republican principles. He has always been quite prominently identified in local affairs, having held various school offices for years.

      In 1905 Mr. Buchanan and Miss Ollie Brodrick were united in marriage. Mrs. Buchanan's parents are both deceased. One child, Christina Lorene, born July 24, 1906, has come to bless this union.

      The name of Mr. Buchanan will surely be found on any list of the prominent old settlers of Dawes county. He has always been the first to lend a helping hand to one in need, and the many warm friends who have had the pleasure of his hospitality will be glad to read of his successful and honorable career.



      Daniel Adamson is one of the prominent citizens of Cherry county, Nebraska. He was precinct assessor, elected by acclamation, and takes an active part in all precinct affairs. Mr. Adamson himself got up and circulated the petition for the installation of the Cody-Rolp mail route, which gives him a mail box within two and a half miles from his home.

      Mr. Adamson was born in County Sligo, Ireland, September 17, 1867. His father was Walter S. Adamson, born and reared in Scotland, and was one of the leading stockmen of this section in which he resided. His mother was Miss Mary J. Higgins, who came of good old Irish stock. They had seven children, of whom Daniel was the fifth. When he was but seven or eight years old both parents died,

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and at the age of fourteen years he started out in the world to make his own fortune. He took passage for America from Liverpool in the City of Chester, of the Inman line, and landed in New York city the day on which President Garfield died. In 1881 he came west to Marithon county, Wisconsin, and there lived with an uncle until he was sixteen, when he wandered on to Jones county, Iowa. Here he remained for one year, then came to Cherry county, Nebraska, in 1884, and started as a cowboy, working on the T. O. ranch for W. E. Waite and later for the Enlow Cattle Company. Subsequently he worked on cattle ranches in Wyoming during the years of 1884, 1885 and 1886, then went to Wyoming in 1887, working there for seven years for different ranchmen. In 1890 he came back to Cherry county, took up a homestead, and from this time on made it his home, though for three years worked during the summer seasons on Wyoming ranches to maintain himself. This homestead is located on section 24, township 30, range 34, and consists of nine hundred acres of fenced land, with good house, barns, windmills and many other improvements, besides three hundred and eighty acres on the Niobrara river adjoining the Niobrara forest reserve.

      Mr. Adamson has experienced many pioneer hardships. One peculiar incident of the winter of 1884 and 1885 is worthy of mention. With a comrade he had a camp in the center of a hay stack. This was gradually eaten into cattle, and one morning a steer got on top of the stack and fell through, necessitating their finding another camping ground.. He and his companions made a camp in another stack, which in the course of a few days caught fire and burned up. Then they were driven to make a dugout, in which they lived for a time.

      On January 1, 1904, our subject was married to Miss Adda E. Ainslie, a native of Canada. Her father, James Ainslie, a native of Canada. Her father, James Anslie, was a farmer and an old settler of Cherry county, Nebraska, who married Miss Catherine Wigle. Mr. And Mrs. Adamson have a family of three boys, as follows; Walter A., Arthur D. and George I., all born in Cherry county.

      In the fall of 1903, just previous to Mr. Adamson's marriage, his range was burned off by prairie firs, and it was a desolate home to which he brought his bride. However, he went to work with all the energy and courage born of a hardened ranchman, and built up a comfortable home, and is now one of the successful men of the county. Mr. Adamson began with only ordinary range cattle, and has bred them up until now he has one of the finest bunches of Hereford cattle in the state of Nebraska.

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      Mr. Adamson has many personal friends and is universally esteemed and respected. He has always voted the Democratic ticket. The family holds membership in the Methodist Episcopal church.



      A. S. Erickson, a prominent resident of Funk, Divide township, Phelps county, Nebraska, is one of the foremost business men in his community. He has large interest n various business enterprises here, and the success which attends him in every venture is sufficient evidence of his ability and good judgment.

      Mr. Erickson is a native of Sweden. His father, Andrew Erickson, came west in 1882 and purchased six hundred and forty acres of railway land, paying two dollars and fifty cents per acre for it, and later bought four hundred and eighty acre, making in all eleven hundred and twenty acres of land. He was very active in bringing settlers into Phelps county, and aided materially in the development of the commercial and farming interests of this locality. He farmed his land here up to 1894, the removed to Idaho Falls, where he now owns three hundred and twenty acres of land so centrally located that it is worth one hundred dollars per acre. While a resident of this county he served on the county board for some time, and was recognized as a successful business man and active citizen. Our subject began business in Funk in February, 1897, being appointed postmaster in May of the following year. He established a hardware, lumber and agricultural implement business, and this has developed very rapidly and has grown into a most profitable business for the owner. The town of Funk is a very progressive place, and does more business than any other place of its size situated on the Burlington railway. For the year ending June, 1905, the freight receipts at Funk reached the sum of sixty thousand dollars, and of this amount over twenty thousand dollars was paid by Mr. Erickson. Previous to 1903 he had farmed extensively in this locality, and was engaged in raising and feeding stock, but in that year he sold his three hundred and

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twenty acres of land and since then has given his exclusive attention to his present business, which has increased twenty-five per cent. each year for the past four years, which proves conclusively the great prosperity and rapid growth of this section of the state.

     Mr. Erickson has four brothers, as follows: J. E. Erickson, superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy stock yards at Montgomery, Illinois; C. L. Erickson, extensively engaged in the sheep business in Idaho, and who has recently started a bank at Newcastle, Wyoming; F. Erickson, a farmer of Idaho Falls, Idaho, and Henry Erickson, treasurer of Phelps county, whose sketch appears in this book.

     Mr. Erickson was married in Holdrege in June, 1891, to Miss Risberg. They have a family of two children, Harold and Svea.

     Mr. Erickson is a man of active public spirit, and takes a commendable interest in all local and state affairs. He is an independent voter, and from 1890 to 1894 held the office of clerk of Phelps county. He was also clerk of Center township for a number of years. He has built up a comfortable home in Funk, and enjoys the respect and esteem of his associates.


     For many years past the gentleman whose name heads this personal history has been a leading citizen of his community. He opened up a farm from wild prairie land, was intimately associated with the development of the region where he chose his home, and by his untiring perseverance and integrity gained an enviable reputation. His estates lie in section 8, township 33, range 56, Sioux county, Nebraska, and every corner of his ranch bears evidence of painstaking care and good management in its operation.

      Leonard Dout was born in Perry county, Pennsylvania, in 1861. His parents were both born in Germany and came to America when young, settling in Pennsylvania, where they followed farming for many years. Leonard grew up there and worked in Philadelphia as hat finisher when a boy of fourteen years of age, two years later coming west and locating at Decatur, Illinois, where he remained for one year. He then went to Waterloo, Iowa, landing there in 1878, spending about three years in that vicinity, and there cast his first vote. He next went to North Dakota, locating in the Red river valley, and settled near Erie, North Dakota, close to Fargo, and was there for about two years. His next move was to Fremont, Nebraska, where he spent one winter, and in the spring of 1886 came to Sioux county. Chadron was the nearest railroad point to his location, and he came by team from that place, stopping at Crawford and looked carefully over the country around Harrison, and finally picked out a location on War Bonnet creek, using his covered wagon as a house, and camping out in the open many nights before settling. He took a pre-emption, built a log cabin and "batched it" for about a year, then went to work to improve his place and proved up and worked the farm for about nine years, building up a good ranch. He also filed on a homestead and proved up, making a good success of his ranching ventures. He built ditches and put in an irrigating system, farming forty acres. Wild game was plentiful while he was in that locality, and he shot many deer and other animals. In 1895 he sold out that place and purchased his present ranch, consisting of twelve hundred acres, which was slightly improved when he took it, and he has improved it in good shape, building a reservoir and ditches, having quite a large tract under irrigation. His buildings are all on sections 7 and 8, in township 33, range 56, the ranch being situated on Jim creek. There is considerable timber also on the place, a fine water supply and everything to make it an ideal situation for ranching purposes.

     Mr. Dout was married in 1896 to Miss Myrtle M. Zimmerman, daughter of William H. Zimmerman, who was an early settler in Sioux county, locating here in 1886, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this volume. Mrs. Dout was born in Pennsylvania, the family moving to Nebraska when she was a small girl, where she was reared and educated. Two children have been born to their union --Irva L., born in 1898, and Clarence H., born in 1902.

     While Mr. Dout takes a commendable interest in local affairs, he has never sought public preferment, devoting all his time to his home and ranch. In political sentiment he is a Republican.


     As an old settler of Keya Paha county, an agriculturist of untiring energy and perseverance and a worthy citizen, the gentleman herein named needs no introduction to the people of his locality. He has spent over twenty years of his life in their midst and has gained a host of stanch friends and incidentally gained a comfortable home and placed himself and family in position to enjoy the declining years of his life in peace and quiet. He is a resident of Simpson precinct.

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     Mr. Harvey was born in Fulton county, Illinois, March 14, 1840, the eldest in a family of eight children. He was reared and educated on a farm, where he was brought up to do all kinds of hard labor. His father, Samuel D. Harvey, of Pennsylvania Dutch blood, settled at Altoona, Knox county, Illinois, in 1847. During the Civil war he served with honor in the Waterhouse Battery. When our subject was twenty-one years of age he enlisted in Company D, Seventeenth Illinois Infantry, and served three years and thirty days, during that time taking part in four big battles and many skirmishes.

     After the war he returned to Illinois and began farming in Knox county, which he later abandoned for a position on the Burlington road, rising during the ten years' service to conductorship of a freight run between Galesburg and Aurora. In the year 1882 he moved to Des Moines, Iowa, where he spent the first winter putting the trucks under narrow gauge cars on a branch line of the Wabash. For the following four years he followed farming in that locality. In 1886 he came to Keya Paha county, locating seven miles northeast of Carns, on section 29, township 33. range 18. and still owns this place, but is now living on another tract of his land. He improved his homestead, built a sod house in which they lived for fourteen years in fact, the family "wore out" three sod houses before they finally erected a frame residence. During the early years he went through many hard times, losing three crops in succession through drouths, but was fortunate in not losing much stock through cattle rustlers, as did so many of the pioneers of this region. Many times the family were unable to buy shoes, wrapping their feet in rags as substitutes for regulation footwear. He became discouraged at so much hard luck and often felt like leaving the place, but stuck to it, and won success, as he now owns two thousand acres of land, while each of his three sons acquired six hundred acres. He runs three hundred head of cattle and forty hogs, all registered stock, and also forty horses and mules for use on the farm, as he cultivates about a hundred acres each year. His home place is one of the best improved in this county, and he is counted one of the most successful men throughout the region. as he had only fourteen dollars in money when he first crossed the Niobrara at Carns, and now is as well off as any one in the locality. He gives his sons credit for part of his success, as during the hard times they worked at whatever they could get to do to support themselves and assist in taking care of the family. During the first years he was obliged to sell his pre-emption for the mortgage and ten dollars, but from that time has steadily advanced and improved his place. In 1908 Mr. Harvey leased his ranch to the two eldest sons that he and his wife might retire and take life easy during their declining years.

      Mr. Harvey was married December 20, 1866, to Miss Mary B. Scott, born in New York state, her parents, James and Eliza (Ronk) Scott, being early settlers in Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Harvey have three sons -- George D., Arthur P. and Claude L., the last named being the Chicago & Northwestern agent at Merriman, while the first two are still living at home.

     Mr. Harvey richly deserves the success he has won, as he has been a potent factor in the upbuilding of the region where he chose his home, and has always maintained the strictest integrity in all his dealings with the residents of this county and vicinity. He is a Republican, but does not take an active part in politics, never having had the time to devote to public affairs. A view of his fine country residence, with its barns and outbuildings, is presented to the reader on another page.

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     Frank Lessig. whose well tilled farm in Brown county is carefully operated and yields a good annual income, is a gentleman of thorough business methods and progressive spirit. He has spared no pains in bringing this tract of land to a high state of cultivation, and well merits the success which has attended his efforts.

     Mr. Lessig was born in Fannettsburg, Pennsylvania, July 19, 1869. His father is a carpenter by trade and one of the pioneer settlers in Brown county. Nebraska, and a sketch of this gentleman will be found on another page in this volume. Our subject is the eldest in a family of four living children, and was raised in Pennsylvania, there receiving a common school education. At the age of sixteen years he left home and started for the western states, traveling through Colorado, Kansas and southern Nebraska, visiting Omaha and other points of interest in this territory. After an extended trip he returned home and remained with his parents until he was twenty-four years old, assisting his father in establishing his farm, then began farming for himself, taking a homestead in section 3. township 31. range 21. on May 29, 1894. He put up a sod house here, in which he lived for

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ten years, going through many hardships during the dry years, when he suffered severe losses through the destruction of his crops, and this nearly compelled him to throw up his farm. However, he then started in the cattle business, and this proving successful he was enabled to pull through the hard times. In the fall of 1905 he erected a comfortable two-story house of commodious size and has barns, corn cribs, two granaries and a blacksmith shop which make him the possessor of a fine a set of buildings as can be found in this county. Mr. Lessig is engaged principally in stock raising and mixed farming, and of late years has been very successful in both lines.

     On November 22, 1893, Mr. Lessig was married to Miss Lillian Galligan, a native of the state of Michigan, reared and educated in Brown county. Nebraska, where her father is an old settler, having located here in 1882. Mr. and Mrs. Lessig have two children, named James and Orva. They have a pleasant home and comfortable surroundings. and enjoy a large circle of friends and acquaintances. Mr. Lessig takes an active part in local political affairs, and has held different offices in his county. In the fall of 1905 he was elected county commissioner, now serving in that capacity. In political faith he is a Republican. Mr. Lessig and family are members of the Methodist church, and Mr. Lessig is a member of the Odd Fellows lodge at Ainsworth.


     Harry D. Lute, one of the most prominent ranchmen and well known old settlers of western Nebraska, resides in Paxton precinct, Keith county, where he has been associated with the farming interests for nearly a quarter of a century, going through pioneer experiences with his parents and becoming one of the potent factors in the development and growth of the natural resources of that section.

      Mr. Lute was born in Holstein. Germany. January 8, 1870. His father, John Lute, had come to America a few mouths before our subject was born and when he was an infant the mother followed her husband to the new world, where they together started to build up a home. They made their first settlement in Omaha, but after remaining there for about six months came to Lincoln county, and the father followed railroading, and for ten years was section foreman with headquarters at Nichols. In 1873 they moved to Julesburg, living there for five years, then went to Brule, Nebraska, all of the time working as section foreman, until January, 1882. Mr. Lute purchased land near Ogallala, gradually worked into the cattle business, and made that his home, increasing his herd as he became able, and finally gave his entire attention to the business. In 1886 the family moved to the North Platte valley, locating near Paxton, where the father built up an extensive ranch, also devoting considerable time to farming. He was the first man to hay feed cattle in the winter in his section of the country. He was also instrumental in getting the first irrigating system into operation in that part, and was one of the foremost men of his time, always using every endeavor to aid his locality in bettering conditions. He died in August, 1901, and his death was a severe loss to the community. While living in Brule he served as county commissioner and in 1898 was again elected to the office.

     After his father's death our subject took the management of the home ranch and has continued it ever since. The place consists of nine thousand acres, lying along the North Platte river on both sides, and is one of the most valuable properties in that part of Nebraska. It is devoted almost exclusively to ranching purposes, Mr. Lute having a herd of eight hundred to a thousand cattle. There are all kinds of excellent improvements, good buildings, plenty of trees and everything to make it a model ranch. John Lute was one of the first men to begin the raising of alfalfa and his success demonstrated the fitness of the soil for this product. About two hundred and fifty acres of the ranch are under irrigation, while twelve hundred acres may be placed under ditch. In 1908 the large ranch was divided into a number of farms and the mother built an elegant modern residence on her son's place.

     Mr. Lute was married in 1904 to Miss Lulu Woods, daughter of Mathew Woods, an early settler in Chase county, and a veteran of the Civil war. Her mother was Agnes Hanna before marriage.

     Mr. Lute is a graduate of the State Agricultural College, class of 1904. He is county crop reporter for the United States agricultural department and regular correspondent for the Nebraska Farmer, the Twentieth Century Farmer, the Iowa Homestead and other agricultural journals. In addition to the old home ranch Mr. Lute owns fifteen hundred acres along the North Platte with one hundred acres under ditch and fourteen hundred acres of it irrigable. His large barn, destroyed in May, 1908, by a cyclone, was immediately replaced by a much finer one, constructed of concrete

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blocks, one of the best built and equipped barns in the region.

     Mr. Lute is a Republican in politics and a member of the Episcopal church.


     A. L. Davis, widely known throughout this part of the country as a prosperous farmer and stock raiser, has been a resident of that locality for many years, and has aided materially in its development and growth. His home is in township 33, range 42.

     Mr. Davis was born in Ohio in 1861. His father, Andrew Davis, was a native of Ohio, of American stock, and served in the Twenty-third Regiment during the Civil war. The family moved to Indiana when our subject was a small lad, and there he was reared and educated. He was the seventh member in a family of eight children, and struck out for himself at the age of thirteen, working around on different farms in the vicinity of his home, and in following this occupation he received many hard knocks and rather rough treatment which sometimes falls to the lot of young men in his position. In December, 1884, he came to Sheridan county, Nebraska, and settled on the place he now occupies. He immediately began farming, but had practically nothing to start with. However, he had a pair of strong hands and a willing heart, and with his sole possessions--a trunk containing his clothes and sixteen cents in money in his pocket--he went to work. At first he met with many discouragements, and during the dry years lost all his crops, as so many others did. At that time land in that locality could be bought for one hundred and fifty dollars per quarter section. He stuck to his homestead through all the hard times, and since then the rise in value of the land here has placed him in good shape financially and he has gradually added to his property until he now owns nineteen hundred and twenty acres of good tillable land. He engages in both farming and stock raising on a large scale, cultivating about three hundred acres, and the balance is used for hay and grazing for the large bunch of stock which he usually keeps on hand. His place is improved with a fine set of farm buildings, and all the machinery necessary to operate a large farm in good shape. He is proud of his success and is perfectly satisfied with the locality in which he chose his home.

      Mr. Davis was married in 1889 to Miss Mina Coon, who was born in Wisconsin in 1872. Her father, Abraham Coon, was a native of Ohio, and her mother, Cornelia Curtis, was born in Illinois of American stock. She was the youngest member in a family of thirteen children.

     Mr. and Mrs. Davis are the parents of ten children, who are named as follows: Andrew H., Claude C., Cora B., Lillian M., Mary G., Pearl E., Howard L., Glen, Elmer and Leo, all of whom were born and raised on the homestead which they now occupy

     Mr. Davis has a pleasant home and interesting family and devotes his entire time and attention to the building up of his farm. He is a Populist, takes an active interest in local affairs, and has served his township in different capacities at various times.


     Olaus Bogseth, one of the early settlers and now prosperous farmers of Wheeler county. Nebraska, lives on his well tilled farm of four hundred and forty acres situated in Clear creek township and vicinity, where he has spent the past twenty years of his career, principally in Wheeler county, Nebraska

     Mr. Bogseth was born in Norway in 1857 and grew up there, coming to America in 1888 when thirty years of age. He is a son of Andrew and Anna (Holderson) Bogseth, both of whom died in their native land, his father in 1893 and his mother in 1895. Our subject was a very poor man when he first came to this part of the state, and was obliged to work out by the day in order to obtain the money necessary for filing on a government claim. He first bought one hundred and sixty acres and later took up a homestead and pre-emption, and proved up on it. He now owns two hundred and eighty acres of good farm lands in the county. He rapidly developed a good farm, built up a comfortable home, has fine and substantial buildings, and is now comfortably well off. He cultivates a goodly portion of the land, growing small grains, potatoes, etc., also raises some stock for market each year. He is particularly interested in the breeding and raising of good horses, and has quite a large number of fine animals on his place.

     In 1884 Mr. Bogseth was united in the bonds of wedlock to Christine Warner, she born and reared in Sweden. Mr. and Mrs. Bogseth are the parents of six children, who are named as follows: Alfrida (deceased), Axel, Carrie, Olive, Hilma and Lola, which form an intelligent group. Parents and children are devoted members of the English Lutheran church of Ericson, and are highly respected members of society in the community in which they reside.

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     Politically Mr. Bogseth is an independent voter, always for the best man and good government. He has served for years as township assessor, and filled this office with good ability and honesty.


     Edward Crigler, who is a resident of township 30, range 49, and who has demonstrated his own ability as a farmer and his standing as a man and citizen, was born on a farm in Gallia county, Ohio, in 1843. He is a son of Ruben Crigler, who was a farmer and a native of Virginia. His mother, Annie (Fortner) Crigler, was also born in Virginia.

     When our subject was ten years of age the family moved to Illinois, where they settled on a farm in Knox county, and were among the pioneers of that state. When the Civil war broke out, realizing the duty he owed his native land, Mr. Crigler enlisted in Company L, Second Nebraska Cavalry. While with this regiment he saw service in Dakota and Nebraska, where he participated in several engagements with the Indians.

     At the close of the war Mr. Crigler returned to Illinois, where he remained until 1879. He then went to Iowa. where he spent a short time in Madison and Adair counties. He is a pioneer of Nebraska, having settled in Gage county this same year, 1879. He remained there for eight years, and in 1888 came to Sioux county, where he settled on government land. Here he built a log cabin and remained two years. He then came to Box Butte county, where he took a homestead located on the Niobrara river. He proved up his claim, built a nice home and put in many improvements. He has successfully withstood the many hardships which the pioneers of this western country experienced, and reclaimed from the wild prairie a good farm, which by his own thrift and economy he has converted into a comfortable home for himself and family. In 1903, having sold his claim in Box Butte county, Mr. Crigler purchased land in Dawes county, locating about ten miles east of Belmont, where he remained for three years. He then settled on the land which is his present home, having his residence on section 10, township 30, range 49. Here he engages extensively in the raising of live stock with his son-in-law, Alva Robbins.

      In 1873 Mr. Crigler and Miss Jane Miller were united in marriage. She is a daughter of Joel Miller, who was a farmer and blacksmith, and a native of Pennsylvania. Her mother was Mary (Rolston) Miller. Mr. and Mrs. Crigler had two children, namely: Annie R. and Ilah P., both deceased, and have one adopted son, Harry, who is a bright young fellow and a great help to his mother and father.

     Mr. Crigler devotes his attention very closely to his ranch, takes an active interest in all matters, of local interest, and is quite prominently identified with the growth and development of both Dawes and Box Butte counties. He has worked hard and the success with which his efforts have met is well deserved. He has a large circle of friends in the surrounding community, who consider that he has done wonderfully well, and that his career is to be regarded as a marked success. A picture of Edward Crigler and family will be found on another page.

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     Casper F. Nickel, a prosperous, progressive and enterprising farmer of Blame township, Kearney county, Nebraska, is one of the leading old settlers of this locality. When he came here he settled on a wild prairie farm and through industry and energetic efforts has succeeded in building up one of the valuable estates of the locality and is considered one of the substantial agriculturists of his community.

     Mr. Nickel was born in 1852 in Germany, and came to this country when a young man. In 1879 our subject homesteaded and took up a tree claim in Kearney county, afterwards adding to his farm until he is now the owner of eight hundred and eighty acres of good land. Valentine Nickel, a brother of our subject, has a place located directly across the road from the old military reservation of Fort Kearney. He was in this locality in 1876 when the United States soldiers were stationed here. Immediately after taking up his homestead he started to build up his farm, also going into the raising of stock, and has continued at the work ever since. He runs from one hundred and fifty to five hundred cattle annually and a number of hogs, marketing about three carloads of the latter each year, and intends to increase this line of business right along. He handles registered Duroc Jersey hogs and the Poland China breed, and prefers the Poland Chinas, which he has had experience with in former years. He keeps highbred Shorthorn Scotch cattle, male and female, and feeds all the grain and hay he raises on his own farm. He has been most successful in his stock raising operations, but deserves the best of success, as he gives all his time

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and attention to the business. He keeps about twelve horses for his farm work, and raises horses for market, having from thirty to forty for shipment each year. He has a thoroughbred Percheron stallion and ten brood mares. His stallion, "Dewey," captured first premium at the Kearney county fair as a two-year-old, and in his opinion the Belgium Percheron is the only horse to breed.

     Mr. Nickel was married to Miss Augusta Engbert, daughter of John Engbert, who came from Germany and located in Logan township, Kearney county, in 1886, and who has the reputation of being one of the most successful farmers in the county One son and three daughters have come to bless the union of our subject and his good wife, namely: G. August, who is on the ranch with his father; Minnie, wife of Patsy Ryan, of Blaine township; Annie, living at home, and Lillie, attending college at Kearney, Nebraska. The family are members of the Minden Lutheran church and worthy members of society. Our subject is highly esteemed for his sterling qualities by all who know him.


     Arthur H. Grove, one of the best known pioneers of Box Butte county, considered among the early settlers of this region as a business man of more than ordinary capacity, is possessed of a wide knowledge of the history of the development and growth of this section of the state, and has been an important factor in its success. He and his father handled the first United States mail in this section of the country, first at Grand Lake, then at Alliance, also a postoffice on section 4, township 25, range 48. where our subject now lives.

      Mr. Grove was born in the city of Freeport, Illinois, in 1868, and reared there, attending the city schools, where he received a good education, graduating from the high school, and later was a student at Mt. Morris College, Illinois. He came west to Dakota in 1885. where he lived about one year, then moved to Box Butte county, settling with his parents, who were on a homestead in section 4, township 25. range 48. Here they had built a sod house, also a dugout addition, in which they lived during the early days. The father and son Arthur opened a store at Grand Lake and in the city of Alliance, handling the United States mail there also. They had a small store on their farm, also handling United States mail there, our subject himself selling some of the first goods that were ever sold in Alliance, which at that time was called Grand Lake. They kept the store after the change of name from Grand Lake to Alliance. Arthur knew very little about farming as a boy, but he started in to breaking up land for crops and put in some grain and after they had been here a short time he bought out his father's rights to the homestead, sold his mercantile interests, and gave his whole attention to farming. He handled ox teams and led a typical pioneer life, freighting, and when making long trips through the country camped out many times under his wagon, and many times while going long distances would be caught in a heavy snow storm and obliged to sleep on the snow covered ground. During those days he "batched it" on his farm, doing all his own work, cooking, etc., often feeding a whole threshing outfit.

     He was very successful in building up and improving his place and gradually added to his land until he now owns one thousand four hundred and forty acres, situated six miles from Alliance. He farms one hundred acres of this, and in good years had as high as two hundred acres in crops. In 1898 he lost his, barn, five hundred bushels of corn, one hundred tons of hay and feed, also other property by tire, suffering a loss of $3,000. Mr. Grove engages to quite an extent in cattle raising, and has made a great success of this branch of the business, handling the Aberdeen Polled Angus breed.

     Mr. Grove was married in 1897 to Matilda Zobel, whose parents were old settlers in Kearney county, Nebraska, and came to Box Butte county in 1893 here they settled near Hemingford, Box Butte county, Nebraska. To Mr. and Mrs. Grove the following children have been born: Phillip T. and Arthur W., both of whom are now going to school in Alliance.

     Politically our subject is a Democrat, and has served his county as commissoner (sic) for several terms. He has always been active in local affairs, and has been an important factor in building up the schools in this region. In 1904 Mr. Grove went to old Mexico, engaging in the mining business for about one year. then took a trip through the southeastern part of the United States as far south as New Orleans, but finally decided that old Box Butte county was good enough for him, so returned to his ranch here.


     J. H. Rosenfelt, deceased, was a prominent ranchman of Cambridge, Furnas county, Nebraska, and was numbered among the successful and prosperous stockmen of this section of the country.

     Mr. Rosenfelt was a native of Illinois, born in 1856. He came to Frontier county, this state

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in 1877, and opened up a ranch in the Medicine Valley, stocking his ranch with two hundred head of cattle. At this writing his estate has a herd of five hundred cattle and the ranch comprises one thousand eight hundred acres, which is all deeded land. He was one of the largest buyers and shippers of stock in this county, each year sending to market from Cambridge, a hundred cars of cattle and hogs. He owned a number of pure bred Hereford cattle, and kept mostly high grade stock. He located in Cambridge in 1893, and for three years was engaged in the grain business, but sold this out to Cooper & Lynn, of Humboldt, Nebraska. Since then until his death, he devoted his entire time and attention to the care of his stock, and found that it was a most profitable venture, as this country is especially adapted for stock raising and there is no place better fitted for the purpose, as there is plenty of pasture land and good water, besides the climate here is the finest to be found anywhere, with mild winters, so that there is no danger of losing stock through severe storms. When Mr. Rosenfelt was fourteen years old he moved to Lancaster county, Nebraska, where he was reared.

     Mr. Rosenfelt was married in 1883 to Miss Lucy A. Light. They had one son, J. Allen Rosenfelt, who took a course at the Kansas City Veterinary College, but now has charge of his father's estate.

     Mr. J. H. Rosenfelt died here at Cambridge in April, 1907, greatly missed by numerous friends and business associates. He always took an active interest in public affairs and in reform measures. He was public-spirited and progressive.


     Andrew A. Carlson, one of the successful and prominent old-time farmers and ranchmen of western Nebraska, is a man of sterling character and who through industry and good management has come to be one of the largest landowners in Dawes county. He has a pleasant home in section 11, township 33. range 52, and is highly esteemed by his associates and all who know him.

     Mr. Carlson was born in Osterjotland, Sweden, in 1851, and was raised and educated there. He came to America in 1873, and came west immediately after landing in New York city, locating in Pennsylvania, where he spent two years, then went on to Texas, where he was employed on the railroad up to 1883, after that spending one year in old Mexico. there also working on the road. He returned to Texas. and railroaded all over that state, Missouri, Louisiana, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska. Dakota and Wyoming, traveling besides in other states, and saw all of the western part of the United States while in this line of work.

     In 1879 he came to Dawes county and took up a homestead in section 14, township 33. range 52, starting a farm and home. He put up a small shack and "batched it" up to 1893, then was joined by his father and mother, who had journeyed from their native land to spend their last years with their son, and after living here some years passed away, the mother's death occurring in about 1900, and the father's in March, 1893.

     During the first years in trying to establish a farm Mr. Carlson went through some pretty tough times, losing several crops by drouth and other causes, but he stuck to the farm and as time went on conditions became more favorable and he succeeded in his ventures to a marked degree, adding to his original holdings constantly, until he and his wife together now own fourteen quarter sections of deeded land. He has put up good buildings and many improvements on the place, and has a big grove in fine growing condition, having set out all the trees himself. Big Cottonwood creek runs through his ranch, furnishing plenty of good living water the year round, and making an ideal farm for stock raising, in which work he is engaged extensively, and has always been since coming here, after the first four years. He now runs one hundred and thirty head all the time, and has been very successful in this branch of work. In 1905 he moved on to his present homestead in section 11, where he has another complete set of good farm buildings. Mr. Carlson was the first man in this part of the country to build a dam and water reservoir for cattle.

     In 1893 our subject was united in marriage to Miss Ida Dickson, a native of Tama county, Iowa, of American stock. To them have been born the following children: Mary, Lizzie, Roger and Clara, and the family is well liked by everyone, and enjoy a pleasant and happy home.

     Mr. Carlson has done his share in building up this section of the country and been a leader in developing its natural resources. He has held the office of assessor for one year, and also was road overseer in his district.


     John Henderson. familiarly known as "Scotty" to all who reside in a large part of Box Butte county, is probably one of the best-known and most highly respected citizens of his locality, and is also an old settler and substantial farmer who has gained a competence through

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his energetic efforts and industrious habits. His residence is in section 7. township 24, range 51, and there he has a comfortable home, surrounded by all the comforts and many of the luxuries of life.

     Mr. Henderson was born in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in 1861, on a farm. Both parents were born and raised in that country, and farmed there all their lives, and our subject was reared and educated there, attending the country schools during his boyhood. When he was but nine years of age he left home and made his own way in the world from that time on, his first job that of driving a burro delivering milk, and for the first six months at this employment received the magnificent sum of one pound of English money. He worked at different things there for a number of years, then decided to leave Scotland and try a new country, so took passage for America, landing here in 1879, and going directly west to Cheyenne, Wyoming. He worked his way on the ship over here, taking care of a herd of fifty-six black Polled Angus bulls, which were being brought here from Glasgow for breeding purposes.

     The shipment was laid over for three months in Quebec, and our subject had a good chance to see the country there. After arriving in the west he secured employment herding sheep, and followed that for some time, then started freighting from Cheyenne to Fort Laramie, also worked as a cowboy on different ranches through Wyoming for a period of eight years. He traveled on horseback all over Wyoming, Montana, Dakota and Nebraska, and was familiar with all the old cow trails over those states. He finally gave up that occupation and came to Nebraska to locate permanently. filing on a homestead in section 7, township 24, range 51. During the first few years, all his work on the ranch, freighting, etc., was done with mule teams. As a cowboy, sheep herder, etc., he had managed to save up about four hundred and fifty dollars, also owned a team of ponies, and so had a fairly good start. He started at once to improve his farm, put up good buildings and lived a regular pioneer life, meeting with many hardships, losing several crops, etc. He worked hard and gradually bought more land, and is now proprietor of a ranch of four thousand acres, all deeded land. He purchased the old Hart ranch a number of years ago, which is now a part of his valuable property, and the famous old Sidney trail runs directly through his place.

      Mr. Henderson engages exclusively in the stock business. He has a large herd of cattle for breeding and market purposes, and is one of the largest and most successful ranchmen in this region. During the winter of 1904 he lost seven hundred head of cattle through a severe storm, and at various times has suffered heavy losses of stock. His ranch is beautifully situated on the Snake creek, and he has it improved in the best possible shape. He has four wells and four windmills, has erected a handsome residence, and the entire place is fenced and fitted with good buildings, etc.

     Mr. Henderson was married in 1888 to Miss Jennie Allen, daughter of Robert Allen, who is a Canadian by birth, and now lives at Ontario. Mrs. Henderson was one of the early homesteaders in Nebraska, coming here in 1887. Mr. and Mrs. Henderson have five children, named as follows: John A., Dick, Harold, James and Margaret. Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Henderson will he found on another page.

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     Politically Mr. Henderson is a Democrat.


     Leonidas H. Lilly is a worthy representative of the sturdy western pioneer, who has passed through every phase of frontier life and has been an important factor in the upbuilding of his community since coming to Nebraska many years ago. He is now a resident of the thriving town of Kimball, and one of the leading business men there, being engaged in the livery business, and also has a stage line and takes mail contracts.

     Mr. Lilly was born in Indiana on October 5, 1854, living there until about two years of age, when his parents, with their family of four sons and four daughters, removed to Livingston county, Illinois. Subsequently there were four more girls born to the father and mother, making a family of twelve children. The parents remained in Illinois until their death. Our subject went to Montana in 1880, where he lived for about six years, and engaged in buying and shipping horses and stock. He remembers distinctly the days when buffalo were plenty in that vicinity, he himself having two hundred to his his (sic) credit in 1881.

     He followed the business of buying and shipping horses up to 1888, then went to Nebraska, locating in Kimball county, and went into the livery business in the town of Kimball, soon afterwards securing the mail contracts from the United States government, which he carried on for about four years. Two years were spent in Utah and one year in Cheyenne, Wyoming, where he carried on the livery business, finally returning to Kimball county in 1897. He then embarked in the ranching and cattle industry, following this up to 1905, at which time he moved into the village of Kimball and

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