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ty, Iowa, where his parents were farming people. His father died in September, 1896, and his mother in September, 1916.
   Charles J. Oldaker obtained his education in the country schools and remained in Iowa until he was twenty-one years old, when he went to Bozeman, Montana, with the Northern Pacific Railroad. He tried farming in the vicinity of Bozeman for a year, then gave it up and went back to Iowa. Later on he again left Iowa and came on a visit to Frontier county, Nebraska, went then into Colorado and took up a pre-emption claim and proved up. In 1887 he came to Kimball county and, pleased with the aspect of the country and the fine people he met among the earlier settlers, decided to remain, and in the following season homesteaded a half section located nine miles north of Kimball. To his first purchase he added and now owns an entire section. Mr. Oldaker remained on his farm until 1917, when he came to Kimball to live, having a comfortable residence here and an unlimited number of friends.
   Mr. Oldaker was married at Bicknell, Nebraska, to Miss Clara C. Kennedy, and they have the following children: Roy C., born April 19, 1889; Elmo, born April 18, 1891; John G., born May 31, 1892; Fay, born July 2, 1894; Lola, born July 30, 1896; Clara, born June 15, 1898; Earl, born June 14, 1902; and Lynn, born July 15, 1907. John Gilbert Oldaker of the above family, is one of the returned heroes of the great war. He enlisted in the United States navy on December 11, 1917, was sent to France and served seven months on the Flanders front, and was honorably discharged July 10, 1919. Both Mr. and Mrs. Oldaker belong to the order of Royal Highlanders and Mrs. Oldaker is also chief matron in the Degree of Honor lodge, and both set a good example of thrift and foresight by carrying life insurance. Mrs. Oldaker was reared in the Christian church but she attends services in the Presbyterian church with her husband, of which religious body he is a member. He belongs also to the Knights of Pythias.

    ALBERT HUBBARD was born in Randolph, Indiana, December 5, 1862, the son of Francis and Elizabeth (Meriwether) Hubbard. His father was a native of Indiana, and his mother of Delaware. The subject of the sketch was the second of five children born in this family, the eldest being a daughter, Lavina E., now living in Indiana, the wife of Riley Hinshaw. Of the others, Ira is a resident of Scottsbluff county, Nebraska, and Elza and Riley live in Indiana. The father was a farmer and was killed crossing a railroad track August 19, 1913, at eighty years of age; the mother died May 25, 1890, at about fifty years of age.
   Albert was educated in the public schools of Indiana. After completing his schooling he took up farming in his native state, but heard the call of the great undeveloped West and came to Nebraska in 1886. In October of this year he took up a preëmption claim and proved up on same. He then took up a homestead of 160 acres in Scottsbluff county, developed and improved it through the years of pioneering, clerking in a store in Gering several years, and now owns 160 acres of well improved, irrigated land, of the kind that is fast coming to be known as the most valuable because the most productive land in the entire United States.
   On February 15, 1894, Mr. Hubbard was united in marriage with Gertrude England, and to their married life has come the blessing of four children, all of whom are living at home. They are: Emery O., Edna V., Ralph, Waldo, and Laura E.
   Mr. Hubbard is a member of the Christian church, and is a Republican in politics. He stands high in the estimation of his fellow citizens, and is bound by the close ties of sympathy and common experience with the early settlers of this community who experienced along with him the struggles and trials of living in a new country during the period of drouth and hard times before the magical power of irrigation was invoked to turn the desert into a garden.

    JAMES W. BOGLE, for many years one of Kimball county's enterprising and progressive business men, now lives comfortably retired at Bushnell, in which city he owns a large amount of valuable realty. He is a native of Indiana, born, and reared, in Washington county, July 13, 1849. Both parents have long since passed out of life.
   James W. Bogle attended the country schools in boyhood and grew up on a farm. In 1871 he left Indiana and went to Jasper county, Illinois, working there as a farmer for two years and then found better opportunities in Clay county, where he remained six years. Having a natural desire to see more of the great country in which it had been his good fortune to be born, he kept making his way westward, going from Clay county, Illinois, to Ringgold county, Iowa, and six months afterward reached Missouri. Mr. Bogle engaged in farming in Missouri for a year and a half, but in 1879 came to Nebraska, located in Gosper county, took a homestead and tree claim of a quarter section of



land, settled down to its development and improvement, during the first two years living in a sod house, which afforded a great contrast to his modern residence in Bushnell. When he left his farm and came to Bushnell he went into the mercantile business, being a pioneer here in this line and continued for some years and then sold his stock but still owns his fine brick building, in which are located a number of other business firms. Mr. Bogle has shown great business foresight in his investments in land since he came to Nebraska and owns extensive tracts, including four hundred acres in Gosper county and tracts in Kimball county aggregating fourteen hundred and eighty acres.
   In 1874 Mr. Bogle was united in marriage to Miss Mary C. Barnett, who was born in Washington county, Indiana, a daughter of Martin M. and Martha Elizabeth Barnett. The mother of Mrs. Bogle died in Indiana in 1860 but the father survived until April, 1891, moving to Missouri in 1889 and engaging in farming there. To Mr. and Mrs. Bogle the following children were born: George D., who resides with his parents; John F., who is a farmer near Bushnell; Lauretta, who lives near Nampa, Idaho; Mrs. Eva May Meyerhoeffer, who lives in Gosper county; Thomas Leander, who is a rancher near Bushnell; Freddy, who was born September 12, 1886, died February 17, 1887; Laura Alice, who resides at Bushnell; and Charles L., who conducts a general store at Bushnell. While Mr. Bogle has never been unduly active in politics, he has always been an upright, forward-going citizen and has not neglected any of the responsibilities of good citizenship. Both he and wife are members of the Christian church, and benevolent movements of every kind find them interested and helpful when possible.

    DAVID R. READ. -- One of the substantial and prominent men of Bushnell, whose life story is filled with interest, because it tells of worthy effort bountifully rewarded, is David R. Read, now living retired in this beautiful little city. He may well be classed a first citizen, is he was one of the pioneer settlers of the hamlet of Orkney, which was the original site of Bushnell.
   Mr. Read was born in Henry county, Missouri, in 1860. His parents were Joseph T. and Mary Anna (Gilbert) Read, the former of whom was born in Tennessee and the latter in Pennsylvania. The mother died in 1893 and the father came to Scottsbluff county, Nebraska, and died there in 1917, Mr. Read obtained his schooling in Henry county, Missouri. The Civil War undoubtedly had its changing effect on the fortunes of the family and he was not very old when he made his way to Kansas. He remained in that state for five years, and afterward lived in Nebraska and Missouri until 1906. He had met with financial misfortune before this and when he reached Kimball county in that year, his capital amounted to $22.65, which he had obtained by selling a cow. He took a homestead of four hundred and eighty acres in the northeastern part of what is now the Bushnell settlement, then borrowed money and sent for his family. Times were hard during the next two years but through the helpful assistance of a most estimable wife he made headway. While he worked in the town, Mrs. Read took care of the children and the affairs on the homestead, thus holding down the claim. From their present position of affluence, it may seem almost impossible to believe the difficult things they accomplished in those early days, when they had to carry all water used a distance of two miles, and when coal gave out, gathered buffalo chips on the prairie to use as fuel. After Mr. Read had proved up on his homestead he sold it to advantage and invested it in town property, and now owns one of the finest cement block buildings in the city, the first floor of which is used as a bank.
   Mr. Read married Miss Willie Felts, and they had two sons: Ernest, who lives in Nevada; and Win. T., who lives at Stanberry, Missouri. Twenty-three years ago he married Zora Van Gundy, daughter of George and Ruth (Minnick) Van Gundy, who were natives of Indiana, but Mrs. Read was born in Iowa. They have one son, Arthur T., who lives at Bushnell. Mr. Read has never been inclined toward great activity in politics, but he has always been a good citizen, and one proof of this may be cited in the fact that he not only invested in property but when the government called on loyal citizens to help, he bought $600 worth of Liberty bonds. Both he and wife are members of the Christian church. While living at Cameron, Missouri, he was an active member of Star Hope Lodge No. 182, Odd Fellows, and belonged also to the order of Patriarchs at the same place.

   FRANK G. TANNER, who is a representative citizen of Scottsbluff county and a successful general farmer, has been a resident of Nebraska for thirty-two years. He is a native of Illinois and was born in Kankakee county,



July 24, 1864. His parents were E. A and Helen (Haskell) Tanner. The father was born in the state of New York, while the mother's people were of New England and she was born in Connecticut. Of the three sons and one daughter in the family, two sons are living, F. G. and H. C., the latter being a resident of Wyoming.
   Mr. Tanner obtained his education in the public schools of Guthrie county, Iowa, and remained at home until 1887, when he came to Nebraska and homesteaded in what is now Scottsbluff county, his eighty acres, on which he still resides, being located three miles east of Scottsbluff. Mr. Tonner (sic) has done well since he came to Nebraska and now owns two hundred and forty acres of irrigated land. His home place is well improved, his stock is high grade and all his farm industries are carried on according to modern methods.
   In 1899 Mr. Tanner was united in marriage to Miss Mary Ferguson, who is a daughter of James Ferguson, one of the early settlers. Mr. and Mrs. Tanner have the following childrne (sic): Cassius, Lawrence, Grace, Myron and Willow. Mr. and Mrs. Tanner belong to the Methodist Episcopal church. In politics he is a Republican.

    CORIE J. HAIN. -- The young man to whom an easy life appeals should not locate in an arid section of country as was a part of Scottsbluff county when C. J. Hain came here, but neither should such a young man adopt farming as a vocation. The men who have been successful in Nebraska have been workers with a large natural endowment of common sense. In coming here such men have expected pioneer hardship and have taken pride in overcoming the most discouraging conditions. Mr. Hain came to Scottsbluff county with limited capital but is now the owner of one of the finest farms in this section.
   C. J. Hain was born at Lake City, in Calhoun county, Iowa, June 11, 1868, and is a son of Elias and Laura E. Hain, the former of whom settled in early life in Iowa and died there at the age of seventy years. The latter died when aged thirty-five years. Mr. Hain has seven brothers and one sister. He obtained a good public school education and has been engaged in agricultural pursuits all his life. When he came to Scottsbluff county in 1906 he homesteaded and his farm of one hundred and forty acres lies in section 24 town 23-54, thirteen miles distant from the city of Scottsbluff. One of the greatest drawbacks to comfortable living when Mr. Hain settled here, was a lack of water, and for the first six months he was obliged to haul all the water used a distance of a half mile. By that time he had a well dug and with irrigation project well under way, there is little danger of this beautiful and naturally fertile section of country ever again suffering seriously from drouth. Mr. Hain has added to his possessions and he now has full three hundred acres, on which he carries on general farming. His improvements are adequate and substantial and all his surroundings indicate thrift and plenty.
   In Pottawatomie county, Kansas, Mr. Hain was married to Miss Flora Ettlinger, who was born in Kansas. They have had the following children: Raymond, whose homestead farm is located near that of his father in Scottsbluff county; Cecil, who lives on his homestead in Wyoming; Mary, who has taken a homestead in Wyoming; Alvin, who lives at home; and Bessie, Edna, Orrie and Archie, all of whom are in school; and Effie Leona, who died when aged eighteen months. Mr. and Mrs. Hain are members of the Baptist church. Mr. Hain has never desired public office and is an independent voter.

    G. F. HAAS. --The financial interests of Minatare, Nebraska, are well taken care of by stable and honorable business men here, the Minatare Bank being a trustworthy institution conducted along conservative lines by men of known probity and high commercial standing.
   Mr. Haas was born in Shelby county, Iowa, February 5, 1876, a son of Frank and Elizabeth Haas. The father was born in Switzerland and was brought by his parents to the United States when three years old. He grew up in Wisconsin and was married there, and in 1872 started with his wife for Western Nebraska but never reached their proposed location. When some distance on the way their party was overtaken by a band of savage Indians who were so threatening that the travelers turned back and Mr. and Mrs. Haas settled in Iowa and the father still resides on his farm in Shelby county. G. F. Haas was reared there, attended the public schools and after graduating from the Shelby high school, went to Omaha and completed a business course in a commercial college. In March, 1909 he came to Minatare, Nebraska, and in association with S. K. Warrick purchased the bank in which they have been interested ever since. Their success has been phenomenal. They have increased the original capital of $5,000 to $25.000, and the $40,000 to $350,000 deposits.



Mr. Haas is also a stockholder in the First National Bank of Scottsbluff.
   On June 25, 1906, Mr. Haas was united in marriage to Miss Evelyn E. Witter, who was born at Woodbine, Iowa, April 15, 1878, who, is a daughter of Parry and Hattie Witter who are natives of Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Haas have one daughter, Frances E., an attractive little maiden of nine years. The family belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Haas is an independent voter in national affairs, but not from lack of interest but because he often feels that. he can rely on his own trained preceptions (sic) in regard to men and their probable reactions in times of national emergency. There are few men who make a closer study of human nature than bankers. Mr. Haas has been identified with both the Masons and Odd Fellows for many years.

    ADAM WALKER, who has proved a good citizen and has done exceptionally well in business since coming to the United States in 1906, still naturally takes a great deal of interest in his old home in Russia, but his interests are now mainly centered in Nebraska. He was born in Central Russia, August 17, 1879. His parents were Adam and Catrina Walker, both of whom died in Russia, the father when seventy-three years old and the mother when aged fifty-five years.
   When Adam Walker was twenty-seven years old he came to the United States with the intention of becoming a farmer. His father had been a small shopkeeper but Adam desired greater opportunity and believing he could find it in America, left Russia and the other members of his family behind. After landing on the soil of the great United States, he came directly to Nebraska and for seven years worked at Lincoln. In 1913 he came to Scottsbluff county, by 1917 was able to buy one hundred and sixty acres of good land, and to the development and improvement of this property he has ever since devoted himself. He has a fine place here now, being not far from Scottsbluff where he has market facilities, and few farms show more careful tillage. He carries on general farming and raises some stock.
   Mr. Walker was married to Christina Hurst, who was born in Russia and was brought by her father, Peter Hurst, to the United States when two years old. He (sic) people at present are in Russia, having twice visited the United States but make their home in the old country. Mr. and Mrs. Walker have six children, namely: Marie, Carl, Reinhold, Florence, Esther and Rudolph, all of whom will receive the best of educational advantages. Mr. and Mrs. Walker belong to the Lutheran church.

   MAX SCHROEDER, who owns some of the most valuable farm property in Scottsbluff county, has been a farmer and stockman ever since he reached man's estate, and has made such practical application of his knowledge that he is one of the county's most substantial agriculturists, although not yet in middle life. Mr. Schroeder was born in Saunders county, Nebraska, March 1, 1883.
   The parents of Mr. Schroeder, Henry and Tillie Schroeder, were born in Germany. The mother died at the age of fifty-five years but the father survives and notwithstanding a life of hard work bears well his seventy-seven years. He came to the United States in 1865 and prior to coming to Nebraska spent some time in New York, Pennsylvania and Illinois. After reaching this state he homesteaded in Saunders county.
   Max Schroeder grew up in Saunders county and attended the public schools. He assisted his father on the pioneer homestead when many hardships beset the early settlers, and afterward became a farmer on his own account. In 1916 he came to Scottsbluff county and bought a quarter section of land, in 1917 bought a second quarter section, and in 1918 bought his last tract of eighty acres. He carries on general farming and makes feeding cattle a feature. His land is situated on section 26 town 22-53, and there are few farms in the county that have been better improved. Mr. Schroeder has common sense ideas in his work, providing the latest improved machinery and appliances for carrying on the same, and in consequence is able to take from his land much more that the less progressive farmer can.
   In Saunders county, on June 9, 1904, Mr. Schroeder was united in marriage to Miss Mintie Clouse, whose father, Calvin Clouse, was born in Tennessee. Mr. and Mrs. Schroeder have three children, namely: Cecil, Evelyn and Harris. The family belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church. In politics Mr. Schroeder is a staunch Republican. He takes interest in the county's development, lends his influence to the betterment of the public schools and favors measures looking to improvements in regard to public roads, but has never consented to hold office. He belongs to the order of Modern Woodmen of America.



   ALONZO THURMAN. -- Practical industry, wisely and vigorously applied, seldom fails of attaining success, and the career of Alonzo Thurman, now one of the leading farmers of Scottsbluff county, is but another proof of this statement. When he started out in life he had but few advantages but a practical education to assist him along the road to success, but his diligence and judicious management have brought him ample success as a reward for his labors.
   Alonzo Thurman was born in Knox county, Illinois, May 29, 1864, the son of Wesley and Martha (Denison) Thurman; they both were natives of the Buckeye state. They had a family of seven children: Sylvester, deceased; Arizona, who married Joseph Casper, lives in Kansas; Alonzo, the subject of this review; Sheridan, a farmer living seven miles north of Scottsbluff; Dorothy, deceased; Lilly, the wife of George Wason, resides in Illinois, and Arthur who lives in Idaho. Wesley Thurman carried on a general farming business in Illinois where his family were reared. Alonzo grew up in his large family used to the give and take that exists where boys are growing up together and thus early became self-reliant and able to hold his own in the youthful affairs of life. He attended the school near his home and thus gained a good practical foundation in an educational way, which became of great value to him in his business relations in later life. After his school days were over, the young man decided upon agricultural pursuits as a life's vocation, as it was a business he had learned practically on the farm, with his father's supervision, until Wesley Thurman died when the boy was seventeen years old, then he began to work out the daily problems for himself, and that he was able to do so remarkably well is attested by the fact that by his own unaided efforts he has accumulated a comfortable competency. Mr. Thurman remained in Illinois until he was twenty-four years of age, but that state was well settled up, land was high in value, and so he determined to avail himself of the homestead plan of acquiring land and with this end in view came to Nebraska in 1888, locating on a claim in Cheyenne county, which at that time embraced the territory now known as Banner county, as the latter was carved from Cheyenne and erected into one of the divisions of the state later. He proved up on his homestead and at once began excellent and permanent improvements that greatly enhanced the value of the land, erected a comfortable home and good farm buildings as soon as his capital permitted and was soon established as one of the progressive and prosperous agriculturists of the district, In 1903 he sold his homestead and went to northern Iowa for five years, in 1908 returning and buying his present place. Mr. Thurman made a good choice in picking out the location of his claim as all his land today is under irrigation and on his 160 acres under ditch he is able to raise many times the amount of crops that he could on unirrigated soil. In 1914 he bought eighty acres adjoining. His land is now worth $400 an acre. From first locating in this section he has advocated improved methods and used the latest and most modern agricultural implements in his farm work, making it much easier to conduct operations than it was years ago. Today he recalls vividly the trials and struggles which the early settlers of this county encountered in contending for victory over the untried forces of a new land, and notwithstanding the anxiety and toil imposed, looks back to those days as among the happiest of his life--a view that is fully shared by the other members of the family. He makes comparison between the high prices paid farm labor today, with what he as a young man first earned when he went to work just after leaving school and in the realm of retrospection, Mr. Thurman is duly impressed with the fact that "the world moves," and waits upon no man.
   In 1896, Mr. Thurman married Miss Eva Palmer, a native of Iowa, who came to Nebraska when very young with her parents. Six children have come to brighten the Thurman home: Wesley, Stella, Iona, Lola and Viola, all at home, and Vera, who died at the age of sixteen. The Thurman home is one of the most delightful in the Gering valley and they keep open house to their host of warm friends. Mr. Thurman is a Republican in his political views while his fraternal relations are with the Modern Woodmen of America.

    ROY SCHAFFER, who is one of Scottsbluff's enterprising young men and successful farmers, was born October 12, 1892, near Johnson, in Nemaha county, Nebraska. His father, Henry Schaffer, was born in Illinois and as a young man came to Nemaha county Nebraska, and at Johnson was married to Miss Flora Able. The family home continued at Johnson, where Mr. Schaffer engaged in farming until 1909, when he came to Scottsbluff county and bought eighty acres on which he yet resides.
   Roy Schaffer obtained a public school education in Nemaha county. He accompanied his father to Scottsbluff county in 1909 and is engaged in farming. He carries on general farming, making beet growing his main crop,



and rents eighty acres, being situated within four and three-quarters miles of Scottsbluff. The home farm is well improved, the father of Mr. Schaffer attending to that as soon as the place came into his possession.
   At Scottsbluff on December 10, 1915, Roy Schaffer was united in marriage to Miss Tessa Harrison, who was born at Fort Collins, Colorado, who is a daughter of Bert and Minnie (Yocum) Harrison, who were born in Missouri. Mr. and Mrs. Schaffer have one daughter, Jean, who has passed her second birthday. The family belongs to the Presbyterian church. Mr. Schaffer is not active in politics but takes an intelligent interest in local matters, particularly those pertaining to agricultural affairs, and voices approval of the high officials of the state who are seeking protective legislation along this line.

    MANUEL G. WILSON, who, is a successful general farmer and respected citizen of Scottbsluff (sic) county, Nebraska, was born in Indiana, February 13, 1871. His parents were Henry and Julia Wilson, natives of northern Indiana. The father was a farmer all his life, first in Indiana and later in Nebraska. There were four children in his family.
   M. G. Wilson was reared in Indiana and attended the public schools there. His entire life has been devoted to agricultural pursuits and since 1914 he has been a farmer in Scottsbluff county, Nebraska. He owns eighty acres of irrigated land on section 25 town 22-54, which is well improved. Mr. Wilson has no particular specialty, the natural soil, with irrigation, producing abundant crops of all kinds.
   In 1900 Mr. Wilson was united in marriage to Miss Fay Galford, who was born in Iowa, February 28, 1880. Her parents now reside at Burwell, Nebraska, where they are highly respected. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson have one son, Norman, who lives with his parents. Mr. Wilson has never desired political office and takes only a moderate interest in public affairs except as they affect the farmers. He votes independently.

    THEODORE CARLSON, who is one of the representative citizens and successful farmers of Scottsbluff county, has spent the greater part of his life in the United States and many years of it in Nebraska. He was born in Sweden, November 9, 1866.
   The parents of Mr. Carlson were Carl E. and Christina Louisa Carlson. The father was born in Sweden in 1830 and was a farmer all his life. The mother was born in Sweden in 1843 and still lives there.
   After his schooldays were over and when seventeen years of age, Theodore Carlson left his native land for America. It required some courage to thus start out for himself to make his way in a strange land, but he soon found good friends in Iowa, where he lived from 1883 until 1888, when he came to Nebraska. He located first in Banner county, homesteaded there and kept his quarter section of land until a good business opportunity came to sell at a profit. Realizing that only irrigation was needed to make land in Scottsbluff county wonderfully productive, he had the good judgment to invest here, securing one hundred and seventy-two acres, the entire body now being irrigated and worth many times the price he paid for it. In early days he faced the hardships that met all settlers here, but Mr. Carlson is not the type of man to be easily discouraged and his persistency has been well rewarded. He has everything very comfortable about him in the way of substantial buildings, and if he so desired, might take more ease that he does, but he has always been a hard worker and so continues.
   Mr. Carlson married Miss Mary Peterson, who was born in Sweden in 1872. Her parents were also natives of Sweden. Her father came to the United States in 1886, was a farmer in Nebraska and he died here. Mr. and Mrs. Carlson have had five children, four of whom died in infancy, the one survivor, Carl, living at home and assisting his father. The family belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Carlson is a Republican in politics and takes considerable interest in public affairs as an intelligent citizen must, but has never been wiling (sic) to accept any public office. He is widely known and the entire family is held in high esteem.

   GUY C. McPROUD, who is a general farmer in Scottsbluff county, owning one hundred and forty acres of irrigated land, came here in 1906 and homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres. He was born at Farmland, in Randolph county, Indiana, December 7, 1858. His parents, Joseph and Sarah (Taylor) McProud, moved to Kansas in 1856 when he was young, and they spent the rest of their lives on a farm there.
   Mr. McProud attended school through boyhood but after his schooldays were over, went to work on a farm and has followed agricultural pursuits ever since and has been very successful. In early days he went through



the usual pioneer hardships and remembers well when all these productive fields suffered every season from lack of water. He carries on general farming and pays some attention to stock.
   On December 27, 1883, in Kansas Mr. McProud was married to Miss Eva Baker, who was born in Kansas, August 12, 1864 and is a daughter of Ephraim and Ellen (Sweeney) Baker, who were farming people and now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. McProud have had children as follows: Nellie, who lives in Missouri; Ross, who operates the homestead; Garnett, who lives in Kansas; Hazel, who lives at home; Alta, who lives in the state of Washington; and two who are deceased. Mr. McProud has given his children every advantage within his power and they are all well educated and the most of them are married. He and wife belong to the Presbyterian church. He is an independent voter and has never accepted any public office except membership on the school board. Mr. McProud is known among his neighbors as an honest, upright man, one whose word is as good as his bond. He organized the first school district in this neighborhood and school was held in his house. He had to go as far as the Platte River to get children in sufficient numbers to organize the district.

    OSCAR A. CARLSON, whose well improved, irrigated farm is situated on Section 18 town 12, Scottsbluff county, has been a resident of the United States for thirty-five years and has prospered through industry and good management. He was born November 31, 1860, in Sweden. His parents were Carl and Johanna (Anderson) Carlson, both of whom are deceased. Of their three children Oscar A. was the youngest.
   Mr. Carlson remained in his native land until he was twenty-five years old. There he attended school and assisted his father who was a general farmer. In 1884 he came to the United States, and in 1892 his parents came also. For eight years Mr. Carlson worked on farms in Kansas helping through many bountiful harvests in that productive state. He watched his opportunity, however, to secure a farm of his own and after coming to Scottsbluff county, Nebraska, in 1897 homesteaded forty-six acres. He has remained here, continually improving his place and now has a valuable property and a comfortable and attractive home.
   Mr. Carlson was married to Miss Ellen Anderson, who was born in Sweden, June 24, 1867, the ceremony taking place in Nebraska, in 1896. The parents of Mrs. Carlson never came to the United States and still live on their farm in Sweden. Mr. and Mrs. Carlson have two children, namely: Edwin and Anton, both of whom reside at home. The family belongs to the Methodist Episcopal church. They have a wide acquaintance and are very highly esteemed in their neighborhood.

    ENOCH BOWMAN, who is one of the representative men of Scottsbluff county and a prominent farmer, came to the eastern part of Nebraska and homesteaded as early as 1883. He was born in Boone county, Iowa, March 4, 1855. His parents were Jeremiah and Elizabeth (Brown) Bowman, the former of whom was born in Pennsylvania, August 18, 1829, and the latter in Kentucky.
   Enoch Bowman attended the district schools in early years and afterward assisted on the home farm. A natural desire to own land of his own, led him to come early to Nebraska, and in spite of many hardships that faced all the pioneers, he has never wished to leave the state. In 1906 he came to Scottsbluff county and has a fine, irrigated farm of one hundred and sixty acres, on which he has placed substantial improvements. He carries on general farming and deals in live stock.
   In Nebraska, in 1889, Mr. Bowman was united in marriage to Miss Ida Harter, who was born in Indiana. Her parents were David and Mary (Weeks) Harter, the former of whom was born in Pennsylvania and the latter in Connecticut. For many years Mr. Harter was a general farmer in Indiana and both he and wife died there. To Mr. and Mrs. Bowman ten children have been born, namely: Ethel, who is the wife of L. L. Hewitt, lives at Scottsbluff; William E., who is his father's right hand man on the farm; and Edward, Kittie, Mary, Bertha, Ella, Herbert, Bernice and Gordon, all of whom are at home. Mr. Bowman and his family belong to the Methodist Episcopal church. In politics he is a Republican. He has never cared for public office but takes a close interest in both outside and local affairs and is particularly concerned in the matter of public schools. For many years he has belonged to the Odd Fellows and is a member also of the Order of Modern Woodmen.

   DANIEL BOWMAN, whose large, well improved farm is situated on section 17 town 12 Scottsbluff county, is considered one of the successful agriculturists of this section, and



he is also one of the town's representative men, He has served on the school board for a number of years and his opinion is very often consulted in regard to public matters.
   Daniel Bowman was born in Boone county, Iowa, July 16, 1970. His parents were Jeremiah and Elizabeth (Brown) Bowman, the former of whom was born in Pennsylvania, August 18, 1829, and the latter in Kentucky. Mr. Bowman received his education in Iowa. In 1907 he came to Scottsbluff county, Nebraska, homesteaded, and now has an irrigated farm of one hundred and five acres that would command a high price should he place it on the market. Mr. Bowman has improved his land with substantial buildings of every kind and his surroundings show thrift and good management. He carries on general farming and raises stock for his own use.
   In Nebraska, in 1894, Mr. Bowman was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth Linton, who was born in Otoe county, Nebraska, February 19, 1876. Her parents were James and Elizabeth (McNiel) Linton, now deceased, who were farming people in Otoe county. Mr. and Mrs. Bowman have had the following named children: Cecil who is a farmer in Scottsbluff county; Maurita, who is married and lives in Colorado; Harold, who assists his father on the farm; and Merle, Allen Stanley and Delbert, all of whom are at home. Mr. Bowman belongs to the order of Modern Woodmen.

    MONROE J. REED. -- When a man chooses any vocation in life it is satisfactory indeed to find that his judgment has not been at fault but that success has rewarded his earnest efforts. While there is no business so important as farming, not every young man can make it profitable when he leaves the home farm where everything is familiar, and starts out for himself. When Monroe J. Reed, however, came to Scottsbluff county, from his father's farm in Sarpy county, he found he had been well trained and the effects of this training are seen in the excellent condition of his homestead, which is situated on section 17 town 22-53, no great distance from a fine market at Scottsbluff.
   Monroe J. Reed was born in Clearfield county, Pennsylvania, October 21, 1873. He is a son of James Mitchell and Mary E. (Read) Reed, both of whom were born in Pennsylvania. In the spring of 1880 they moved to Sarpy county, Nebraska and engaged in farming for the rest of their lives. Monroe J. Reed obtained his education in the public schools. He was reared on his father's farm and from there came to Scottsbluff county in 1910 and homesteaded. Almost all the substantial improvements which mark the place as the property of a careful owner, were put here by Mr. Reed. His land is all irrigated and abundant crops result from his efficient methods of farming.
   In 1919 Mr. Reed was married to Mrs. Minnie (Van Meter) Meyers, who was born in Illinois, December 4, 1885, and was carefully educated in Nebraska. She is a daughter of Henry and Mary (Hulbut) Van Meter, her father being a substantial farmer in Hitchcock county, Nebraska, where both parents have spent their lives. Mr. and Mrs. Reed are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. In politics he has always been identified with the Republican party.

    WILLIAM BOSTON MEEK, who is one of Scottsbluff county's successful self-made men, finds himself quite ready to believe stories often told the traveler through this section, of the pioneer hardships of seventeen years ago. Like many other young men, he came here with more courage and ambition than capital but all these were necessary during the early years. He came before the great irrigation projects were under way, and deserves credit as do others, because of the determination and persistency with which he earned the right to his land. His fine irrigated farm is enough reward.
   William Boston Meek was born in Wayne county, Indiana, June 30, 1888, and is a son of John William and Wilda (Porter) Meek, the former of whom was born in Indiana, February 2, 1851, and the latter in the same state, November 6, 1853. They now live on their large ranch in Boxbutte (sic) county, Nebraska. When young Mr. Meek's parents moved to Morrill county and he was reared there and worked on his father's farm until 1892 when he came to Scottsbluff county and homestead on one hundred and sixty acres. He then had this large tract of wild, unimproved land and set about developing it as rapidly as possible, in the meanwhile reducing his living expenses to the lowest ebb. It was a long season of hard work before he had completed his contract with the government and at times found it necessary to leave his own farm and work for others in order to get money to hold his claim. At first the land was not properly productive, his crops being injured on many occasions by protracted drouths, but since it is irrigated an entirely different story may

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