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which he served three years and eight months and during this time was wounded. At that time work that is now quickly accomplished by a trained engineering corps, had to be done by the private soldiers and it was while assisting in laying pontoon bridges that he contracted rheumatism from which he still suffers. He took part in such battles as Chattanooga, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and Stone River, and was with Sherman in the memorable march to the sea. Before locating in Banner county, Nebraska, the family had lived for a time in Pike county, Indiana, and also in Kansas. The father homesteaded in Banner county in 1886, took a tree claim and later a Kinkaid claim and at the time of retirement in 1915, owned nine hundred and sixty acres, which he sold before moving to California. He has always been independent in politics. Both he and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. They have had children as follows: William C., whose home farm lies on section elevent (sic), town twelve; Emma, who is the wife of J. W. Mosier and they live in Oregon; George, who died in infancy; Allen, who lives in Banner county, married Angeline Broughton; Maggie, who lives at Orleans, Nebraska, is the wife of Burr McConaughty; Effie, who is the wife of Homer Sickles of Banner county; John L., who lives on the home ranch, married Grace Stroud; Verdia, who is the wife of Clifford Houston and they live in California; and Walter, who is a merchant at Redington, Morrill county married Edna Baldwin.
   William C. Muhr remained with his parents until he was twenty-nine years old. He assisted his father from the first. In recalling early conditions he says that for two years after the family came the crops were exceptionally abundant, but a long period of drought followed that brought discouragement and disaster to many settlers. When his parents settled here they had one cow and four horses and just three dollars in money left after their long journey. Within three weeks the mother was taken so ill that a doctor had to be brought from Sidney to attend her, and when he left he took one of the horses as his fee, seemingly a rapacious one even if the distance was fifty-one miles. Later Mr. Muhr and his father hauled wheat to Sidney and sold it for thirty-seven cents a bushel. The Muhrs at first lived in a dugout and during one of the fierce blizzards of those days, at one time were imprisoned by the snow.
   In 1891 William C. Muhr homesteaded and took a Kinkaid claim as soon as that law was passed. He lives on this claim and has retained his homestead so that altogether he has ten hundred and forty acres, mostly ranch land. He raises about sixty head of cattle yearly, formerly raising one hundred and fifty head and sometimes two hundred head. He breeds Duroc-Jersey hogs and in earlier years raised Percheron horses but this industry is less profitable than formerly.
   On September 18, 1898, William C. Muhr was united in marriage to Miss Alice L. Broughton, who died May 6, 1916. She was a daughter of Orr and Ella (Miller) Broughton, old residents of Cheyenne county who now live retired in California. The following children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Muhr: Pearl, who is the wife of Bert Tinsley, of Morrill county; Opal, who is the wife of Lloyd Sample; and John, Cecyl, Alvin and Allen, twins; Theodore, Beryl, Gilbert and Ruby. Mr. Muhr's second marriage took place April 22, 1918, to Mrs. Etta Sample, widow of John Sample and daughter of Stephen and Marian (Banister) Shaw, residents of McPherson, Kansas. They have a beautiful home, for Mr. Muhr has taken much pride in improving his property. His residence is situated under the east side of the bluffs between Pumpkin Seed and Lawrence Fork creeks. They are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. He is an independent voter and has never been a seeker for office although he has served in minor township positions when he has felt it to be his duty. He is a man who is universally respected.

    WILLIAM M. WISNER, who is a well known citizen of Banner county, operates a large body of land here. He accompanied his parents to Banner county when about twelve years old, has acquired land of his own but resides, at present, on the land his father homesteaded in March, 1888. He was born in Poweshiek county, Iowa, February 4, 1876.
   The parents of Mr. Wisner are Seneca R. and Delia J. (Wells) Wisner, the former of whom was born in Rock county, Wisconsin, August 10, 1851, and the latter in Mahaska county, Iowa, February 21, 1852. The father grew up from boyhood in Iowa, has always followed agricultural pursuits and was very active until he retired in 1913. On February 28, 1888, he homesteaded in Banner county and still owns six hundred and forty acres here. He started on very limited capital and gained an ample fortune mainly through stockraising. He owns forty-five acres of land in Florida and some city lots in Palm Dale, near



Okechobee, where he and the mother of Mr. Wisner have resided since the fall of 1913. While a resident of Banner county he was active in the councils of the Democratic party, and for years served in local offices. He belongs to the order of Modern Woodmen of America and both parents of Mr. Wisner are members of the Congregational church.
   William M. Wisner, the only child of his parents, remained with them until February, 1907, when he took a Kinkaid claim and lived on it until he accompanied his parents to Florida in the fall of 1913. He remained in the South two and one-half years, returned then to his Kinkaid claim for eighteen months, and for a like period had been operating his own land and his father's also, devoting considerable attention to calves for market. He recalls some early days of hardship on the homestead, caused mainly by the stringency of the money market, when he assisted his father to cut and haul wood as far as Sidney, when fine cedar posts brought only eleven or twelve cents apiece.
   In February, 1907, Mr. Wisner was united in marriage to Miss Maude M. Lease, who is a daughter of Asher and Lucy (Siemiller) Lease. They have two children namely; Ethel, who was born August 5, 1907, and Fannie, who was born March 11, 1910. Mr. and Mrs. Wisner are members of the Congregational church, In politics he is independent.

    FRANK W. ABBOTT, general farmer and rancher who came first to Nebraska when sixteen years old, still owns the timber claim he secured in February, 1885, in Banner county. Before locating permanently, Mr. Abbott took in much of the adventurous life of this western section, and was acquainted with many men of prominence whose business or pleasure called them also to this part of the United States.
   Frank W. Abbott was born at Jackson Michigan, February 7, 1857. His parents were Henry C. and Eleanor (Harpham) Abbott, both of whom were born in England, the mother on November 9, 1821, and the father on June 16, 1822. They were married in England on June 16, 1846, and came to the United States in 1847. Henry C. Abbott's father was a miller, carpenter, and contractor, and while in England, Mr. Abbott was a miller but after coming to America was a carpenter and builder in Michigan until 1861, when he moved to El Paso, Illinois, to become land agent for the Illinois Central Railroad.
   For twelve years the family lived at El Paso, Illinois, while he was engaged with the Illinois Central. After leaving the railroad he returned to England to settle up an estate left the family by Rear Admiral Fox. Henry C. Abbott was a man of education and fine presence and later in looking after real estate interests, visited Buenos Aires, South America, Havana, Cuba, and Louisiana, and died at New Orleans in 1907. He was influential in the Republican party and was a delegate in the convention that nominated Abraham Lincoln for the presidency. Of his seven childred (sic), four died in infancy, and Frank W. is the youngest of the two survivors, the others being: Samuel H., who, died December 18, 1890; and Jennie S., who has lived at Exeter, Nebraska, since 1873. She was married first to Schouler Roper, who died in 1885, and second, to Merritt Rogers in 1905, is living there yet.
   Frank W. Abbott attended school at El Paso, Illinois, and began life on a farm. In 1873 his mother and children, came to Exeter, Nebraska, bought railroad land and the mother died at Exeter in 1879. In 1881 Frank W. went to Oregon and followed farming there until 1882, when he and his brother drove cattle and horses across the trail to Cheyenne, Wyoming, a journey that consumed five months. After a winter spent at Exeter, Mr. Abbott went west again and rode range for twelve years, driving over Idaho and Montana during that time. In the spring of 1884 he came to Banner county and worked for C. C. Nelson who operated the Tusler ranch on Greenwood creek, and afterward for Dicky Brown. At that time there were only three families living on Pumpkin Seed creek. In February, 1885, both he and brother took pre-emption and tree claims, and his sister, then a widow, also took a pre-emption and tree claim. He lived on his pre-emption for ten years, then sold, but still has his tree claim and the heirs of his brother still retain their timber claims. In 1894 Mr. Abbott went to Wheatland, Wyoming, where he worked for two years for an irrigation company; from there going to Thermopolis, Wyoming, where he bought a hotel and bath-house, and operated it for twelve years. Then Mr. Abbot returned to his property in Banner county, where he owns one hundred and sixty acres and leases about one hundred and eighty acres. In addition, Mr. Abbott has a comfortable residence and some lots at Woreland, Wyoming, and Mrs. Abbott owns a homestead near.



Thermopolis, Wyoming. Mr. Abbott has under consideration removal to a point on the Morrill and Banner county line.
   Mr. Abbott was married July 12, 1912, to Mrs. Ollie Quebbemam, who had one daughter, Carmel, who lives at home. In politics Mr. Abbott is a staunch Republican, and as, did his father, belongs to the order of Knights of Pythias.
   In speaking of early days in this section, Mr. Abbott recalls an occurrence that came under his own observation. It was in 1870 that a band of government surveyors were making a sectional and sub-divison (sic) survey between Wright and Hubbard gaps and suddenly found themselves surrounded by a band of outlaw Indians, of the Sioux tribe, who would have killed them without mercy had not another Indian band suddenly appeared and drove the marauders away, the latter being under orders from the government agent. The surveyors had to be men of courage and expedient, and among those whom Mr. Abbott knew well was Frank Huber, who now lives at Custer, South Dakota. Those old days of Indian danger have long since passed away in this vicinity.

    ARTHUR V. BURNETT, who is a prosperous and enterprising farmer and ranchman in Banner county, was born in Jackson county, Wisconsin, June 8, 1881, and is a son of Sidney D. and Kattie (O'Halloran) Burnett. Both parents were born in New York, the father on March 16, 1843. The mother died in 1901. Of their seven children, two besides Arthur F. are living, namely: Mrs. Belle Franklin, who lives at Bayard, Nebraska; and Archibald, who resides in Wisconsin.
   Arthur F. Burnett was young when his parents brought him to Nebraska. In 1886, his father moved to Box Butte county, Nebraska, homesteaded, and the family lived on the place until 1889, then moved to Bayard, where the father worked to some extent at his trade, being a carpenter. In 1902 he came to Banner county and has since resided with his son. He is a Republican in politics and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church.
   In the public schools at Bayard, and in Hastings College, Arthur F. Burnett secured educational training that fitted him for almost any calling. He chose farming and stock-raising, and after coming to Banner county in 1902 bought the land on which he lives, subsequently added to it until he now owns twenty hundred and ten acres. It is mostly ranch land and Mr. Burnett is very much interested in stock production. He raises one hundred head of cattle, fifty head of horses, and forty head of Poland-China hogs annually. His farm industries are carried on with the assistance of modern machinery and his methods have little in common with the old time ways of other days. Mr. Burnett has made may substantial improvements on his property and has recently completed a handsome up-to-date farm residence which is a credit in comfortable appointments to this part of the county.
   On December 7, 1904, Mr. Burnett was united in marriage to Miss Belle Skinner, who is a daughter of one of the best known and most highly esteemed pioneer citizens of Banner county. Mr. and Mrs. Burnett have four children, namely: Paul, Laura, Clifford and Nettie. As a citizen, Mr. Burnett has always been active and intelligently useful but has not sought political office, the proper management of his large ranch interests rather completely absorbing his time and strength. He lives in great friendliness with all who know him.

    ARTHUR H. HERMANN, who is one of the solid reliable men of Banner county, has large farm and ranch interests. He accompanied his parents to Nebraska in 1881 and has spent the greater part of his subsequent life in some part of the state. He was born in Johnson county, Iowa, August 13, 1870, one of a family of ten children born to George M. and Margaret (Wenkheimer) Hermann.
   The parents of Mr. Hermann were born in Germany and Ohio respectively. The father came to the United States when seventeen years old and followed farm life in Ohio until moving to Oskaloosa, Iowa, where he continued to farm until he came to Johnson county, Nebraska, in 1881. He bought land there and resided on it until the spring of 1890, when he removed to Morrill county in the hope that a change would restore the mother of Mr. Hermann to health, but it did not avail and she died on March 15, 1891. The father, after her loss, went to live with his son Arthur H. and continued there until his own death on December 13, 1913. He was a Democrat in politics but never accepted any political office. Of their seven surviving children, only two live in Nebraska, Arthur H. and Lena. The latter is the wife of William Schoemaker, of Morrill county.
   It was in Johnson county, Nebraska, that Arthur H. Hermann secured his schooling. He started out for himself when twenty-one



years old, working first as a ditcher in Morrill County, later in Wyoming, then worked on the railroad at Kimball, Nebraska. In February, 1899, he left the railroad and then worked on the Amy Scott ranch, six miles north of Harrisburg for a year. From there Mr. Herman moved to a homestead he had previously filed on section 23-19-53, which land he still owns. While not one of the earliest settlers, Mr. Hermann experienced hardships and demonstrated his ability to overcome them. Money was scarce at that time in this neighborhood and in order to get enough to pay necessary bills, the settlers had to watch for opportunities and work hard. After cutting and then hauling a load of wood that took him two days to secure and deliver, with team, at Redington, he would get no more than three dollars, which was usually gladly accepted. He also hauled freight to Sidney from Redington for fifteen cents a hundred weight. When he worked at ditching his pay for himself and team was two dollars and fifty cents. He bought three cows for twenty-seven dollars each and it took him three years to pay for them, paying interest on a note during this time.
   Mr. Herman now owns and operates sixteen hundred and eighty acres, of which three hundred and fifty acres are devoted to farming and it is highly improved. He breeds Polled Angus cattle, averaging seventy-five head a year; has a fair supply of Percheron horses and other stock in abundance. He operates the farm with the help of his two older sons. The scenery around the family residence is unusually beautiful, with hills in the background and the Pumpkin valley in front, with a clear view for many miles. An artist would find here an irresistable (sic) subject for his brush.
   Mr. Hermann was married at Kimball, Nebraska, to Miss Norah Skinner, a daughter of Richard Skinner, of whom extended mention will be found in this work. Mr. and Mrs. Hermann were married on July 6, 1898, and they have six children and one grandchild, as follows: Ervin, who was born April 20, 1899; Edward, who was born November 16, 1900, was married July 30, 1917, to Miss Ella Burkey, and their child was born February 15, 1918; Fred, who was born April 1, 1909; Carrie, who was born August 22, 1909; Lola, who was born December 18, 1911; and Harley, who was born February 11, 1916. In his political views Mr. Hermann is a Republican. He has never given much time to political office, with the exception of being road overseer for some ten years, but in the ordinary enterprises in which his neighbors engage for the general good, he is always ready to cooperate.

    JAMES JESSUP who owns two hundred acres of well improved farm land is situated on section thirty, town one, with postoffice at Grew, did not come to Banner county with the earliest settlers but nevertheless had much to do with substantial development of this section of country. It was Mr. Jessup who built the first house at Melbeta, now a flourishing town, owned and operated the first lumber yard there and furthermore his son was the first infant born there.
   James Jessup was born in Orange county, New York, January 11, 1879, the fifth in a family of seven children born to James J. and Delia A. (Van Ostrand) Jessup,. The other children were as follows: Elizabeth, who lives at New Castle, Wyoming; Lillian, who lives at Los Angeles, California; Alice, who lives at Palmyra, Nebraska; and Amzi A., Frank P. and Stanley, all of whom live in Banner county. The father, James J. Jessup, was born at Middletown, New York, October 31, 1845, and died August 23, 1912. The mother was born at Glenwood, New Jersey, in November, 1850; and resides at Minatare, Nebraska. When he came to Nebraska, October 4, 1894, he bought land three miles east and a mile south of Minatare, on which place he lived for twenty-one years and died there. He was a man of sterling integrity, intelligent and straight-forward, and was locally prominent in the Democratic party, although he never accepted any public office except that of assessor. The mother is a member of the Presbyterian church.
   James Jessup attended the public schools at Lincoln in boyhood, then went to work in an upholster's (sic) shop and learned the trade. His brother Amzi had the job of driving the stage from Camp Clark to Gering and Torrington, but later joined his brother James and both went to work on the Bayard ditch. It was hard work to do for seventy-five cents a day and board themselves when not working, but times were hard, corn selling for ten cents a bushel, and therefore the Jessup, brothers continued laboring for a time through frozen mud and water. Of course on off days, Mr. Jessup further relates, that during one fall and winter he made seven trips to Marsland, sixty miles distant often in frigid weather, where he exchanged wheat for flour, which he sold in his neighborhood for one dollar a sack of forty-eight pounds. During one winter he herded two hundred head of cattle in Red Wil-

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