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this section at a time when conditions were particularly hard, little money being in circulation because of crop failures from dry weather. William Wyatt was an industrious and resourceful man and came successfully through that time of hardship, but only by hard work and the exercise of great frugality. During this early time, for two years he accepted and completed hay contracts on the Hereford ranch, at Cheyenne, Wyoming, and each year put up about three hundred tons of hay. In politics he was a Democrat, and he served six years on the board of county commissioners. For many years he was connected with the orders of Knights of Pythias and Modern Woodmen of America.
   Harvey L. Wyatt obtained his education in the public schools and gave his father assistance until he was eighteen years of age. He then started out for himsef (sic) and has greatly prospered. At the present time he owns twenty-six hundred and eighty acres of land, four hundred of which he devotes to diversified farming, the rest being ranch land. He raises Hereford cattle, shipping from fifty to sixty head annually, and breeds Shire horses and Poland-China hogs. Mr. Wyatt carries on his farm industries according to modem methods and his well improved farm reflects credit upon this section of Banner county.
   On January 22, 1908, Mr. Wyatt was united in marriage with Miss Bessie Wartman, the daughter of Price P. and Minnie (Kelty) Wartman, who are the parents of ten children, eight of whom live in Morrill county, and Mrs. Wyatt and her sister Grace in Banner county. Mr. and Mrs. Wyatt have three children: Leo, Norma and Susan. While Mr. Wyatt votes the Democratic ticket, he has never felt that good citizenship required his acceptance of tendered local office and he gives his support to measures that seem to him beneficial without any desire for political reward. Mr. Wyatt is looked upon as a representative and trustworthy citizen of Banner county.

    EUGENE T. WESTERVELT, founder, editor, and proprietor of the Republican at Scottsbluff, has been a molder of public opinion and a vigorous, constructive citizen for many years. He has served effectively in numerous public capacities. In the close confidence of the Republican party, he has been an influential disseminator of its principles, but his loyalty and patriotism have not been bound by party ties at any time in his career. During the World War he stood bravely by his beliefs and parted with three stalwart sons to fight in an other land for human liberty. Mr. Westervelt is the pioneer builder of Scottsbluff, in the sense that he erected the first permanent home here in April, 1900, at the corner of Sixteenth street and Second avenue, where his present fine residence now stands.
   Eugene T. Westervelt was born at Greenfield, Franklin county, Massachusetts, January 16, 1865. His parents were James H. and Loraina (Day) Westervelt, the former of whom was born January 6, 1840, at Patterson, New Jersey, and the latter at Stamford, Vermont, May 4, 1848. They were married in Vermont, and five children were born to them. Of the four survivors Eugene T. is the eldest, the others being James P., a merchant at Gering; Claude H., a general blacksmith at Scottsbluff, and Mrs. Parvin Gilbert, who resides at Scottsbluff. The parents of the above family were members of the Baptist church. The mother died in 1912 and the father in 1908. He served three years as a member of the Sixty-ninth New York infantry in the Civil War. In 1868 James Westervelt moved with his family to Michigan, where he followed the trade of a general blacksmith, and in 1877 came on to Nebraska. He homesteaded in Custer county, on the site of the present town of Westerville, and from there came to Scottsbluff county to take up a claim on which he proved up. He belonged to one of the first Masonic lodges established here.
   Eugene T. Westervelt attended school in Custer county and his first important work in the newspaper line was the operation for one and a half years of the Westeren (sic) Echo, at Westerville. After leaving the newspaper office he engaged in farming for eight years, retiring then to assume the duties of sheriff of Scottsbluff county, to which office he was elected in 1896, serving until 1900. Mr. Westervelt then returned to the newspaper field, on May 4, 1900, starting the publication of the Republican, which was issued first as a weekly but later, to satisfy the public demand, was made a semi-weekly. The paper has a wide distribution, with an actual subscription list of 1800. Additionally, Mr. Westervelt operates a large job printing office. The political complexion of the Republican is as its name indicates. Mr. Westervelt has long been acceptable in all party councils. He served many years as county central committeeman and at present is state central committeeman. During the administration of President Taft, he was postmaster of Scottsbluff.
   In 1886 Mr. Westervelt was united in marriage with Miss Laura B. Amos, who was born at Carlton, Ohio, and they have children as



follows: James William, who is associated with A. J. Shumway in the abstract business; Murial, who resides at home; John McKinley, who assists his father in the newspaper business, received military training at Camp Dodge from June to August, 1918, then, as a member of Battery A, Eighty-eighth Division, Three Hundred Thirty-eighth Field Artillery accompanied the American Expeditionary Forces to France, returned to his home in January, 1919; Lawrence Eugene, who is still in the service of the United States, enlisted with the Naval Reserves, spent four months at Great Lakes and three months at the Minneapolis naval training school, and was then assigned to duty on the transport Arizona; Mendel Eli, who enlisted in October, 1918, in the United States Marine Corps, spent three months in training at Marc Island, was discharged in February, 1919, and now is employed on government building works north of Mitchell, Nebraska, and Catherine, who attends school. Mrs. Westervelt is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, but from boyhood Mr. Westervelt has belonged to the Baptist church. Fraternally he is a Mason, a Woodman, and a Knight of Pythias and was the first chancellor commander of Hannibal lodge No. 40, Scottsbluff.

    ROY L. HOWARD, whose extensive land transaction and many business interests have made him well known in several counties, now resides on and operates his ranch of a thousand acres, which lies on sections three and township three, Banner county. Mr. Howard was born in Buffalo county, New York, not far from Syracuse, January 11, 1877, the son of Julius A. and Lillian E. (Wescott) Howard. In early life the father was a fisherman on the Great Lakes. In 1880, he came to Nebraska and to Banner county in 1886, where he homesteaded in August of that year, continuing on his land until 1895, when he retired to Gering, continuing in business there, however, for a few years, as a member of the firm of J. A. Howard & Sons, meat dealers. At different times he was elected to local offices by the Republican party. He belongs to the order of Modern Woodmen of America and both he and wife are member of the Christian church. Of their five children, Roy L. is the eldest of the four survivors, the others being: Leon R., who lives at Omaha, married Grace Northrup; Leola M., the wife of Walter Beck, resides near Gering; and Luella M., the wife of Claud M. Brown, a farmer near Gering.
   Roy L. Howard was educated in the public schools of Banner county and afterward taught school for three years. He went to Omaha, where he learned the butcher's trade, afterward operating a meat market at Scottsbluff for four years under the firm name of Howard & Troy, subsequently selling to the firm of Deulin & Son. Mr. Howard then came to his ranch and this has remained his permanent home. This ranch covers the site of the old town of Ashford and when a part of Cheyenne county, the courthouse was located here. Mr. Howard also bought the original town site of Northport, at a later date reselling it to individuals. He also owned extensive properties in Scottsbluff county, but has disposed of it and at one time had seventeen hundred and sixty acres in Banner county, which he has reduced to about a thousand acres. Additionally he has a farm in Morrill county in the vicinity of Bayard. Mr. Howard does a large stock business. He breeds Duroc-Jersey and mulefoot hogs, an advantageous feature of the latter breed being their abnormal growth to great weight. Recently Mr. Howard slaughtered one of this variety that weighed eight hundred and fifty pounds. He raises about three hundred of this type annually.
   In 1900, Mr. Howard was united in marriage to Miss Ida M. Troy, and six children were born to this marriage, all of his children now residing with Mr. Howard. His second marriage took place on March 22, 1914, to Mrs. Anna E. Brown, a widow, a daughter of George M. and Anna E. (Marsh) Babbitt. Her father was an early settler and homesteader on the North Platte. His death occurred October 8, 1911, the mother of Mrs. Howard passing away July 19, 1910. A Republican voter all his life, Mr. Howard has been conscientious in his views on public questions, but has never desired political honors.

   VANCE J. CROSS, one of Banner county's prominent and representative men, has been a resident for thirty-four years and during that time has been closely identified with the constructive measures and general development of this rich and beautiful part of Nebraska. Whether in official or private life, Mr. Cross has been enterprising and useful, and by the residents of Harrisburg in particular, he will long be remembered, for he, in association with three others, J. B. Forsman, Charles A. Scholley and Samuel Fisher, laid out the town site, the proposed city being named Centropolis.
   Vance J. Cross was born in Muskingum



county, Ohio, October 1, 1841, a son of Elias and Clemintine (Dickenson) Cross, the former was born in Baltimore county, Maryland, and the latter in Coschocton county, Ohio. The father was a cooper by trade and followed that vocation all his active life, retiring in 1882, and moving to Iowa, where his death occurred soon afterward. He was a man of substantial character and was postmaster at Harrisonville, Ohio, for some years. Both he and wife were members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Of their six children, Vance J. is the only survivor.
   In the common schools of Ohio near his father's little farm, Vance J. Cross obtained a fair amount of schooling for the time, then helped his father and together they went to Iowa where he rented land at first and afterward bought. He carried on general farming there until in October, 1885, when he came with his family to Banner county, Nebraska, where he took a pre-emption and tree claim two years later and homesteaded where he has since lived. Mr. and Mrs. Cross had real pioneer experiences. The nearest neighbor was four miles distant from their homestead and probably the wide expanse of country between them and friendly faces seemed much greater. Their first shelter was a log structure without door or window, unplastered and unfloored. When Mr. Cross had an opportunity to go to North Platte to make hay on the river banks, it was too profitable a chance to decline, although he had to leave his wife and daughter with the responsibility of raising the small crop already in the ground. They were protected by two dogs, not from human interference as might be the case today, but from range cattle, that not only would have damaged the growing crops but might have trampled the people. No accident of this kind ever happened to the family although Mr. Cross often had to be away from home in order to get mail and provisions from Kimball, the nearest town thirty-three miles away. That first log house still holds together, Mr. Cross probably having a sentimental interest in it in comparing it with the handsome modern residence that long since has taken its place. There are other interesting landmarks in the vicinity, Long Spring, often mentioned in local history, being on Mr. Cross's land, and "Lover's Gap," around which romances have been written, is on land adjoining the Cross line fence. Mr. Cross and his son are heavy landowners, he having almost a thousand acres and his son an entire section, the greater part being grazing land. Mr. Cross raises about twenty-five head of cattle a year.
   On January 10, 1871, Mr. Cross was united in marriage to Miss Francis S. Cross, a daughter of Jesse and Eleanor (Ryan) Cross, natives of Maryland and Ohio, respectively' They located in Iowa in 1856. Mr. and Mrs. Cross have had seven children and the following survive: Jennie, who is the widow of John N. Fickes, lives at Kimball; Elias L. and Henry W. H., both of whom live at home; and Dolly A., who is the wife of Otte Yaege, lives at Kimball. Mr. Cross has always been a Republican and has taken part in many county campaigns. He served as sheriff of Banner county for four terms and has been prominent in other capacities. His reminiscences of early days in this section are exceedingly interesting.

    WILLIAM H. ZORN.- The mental power of constructing or creating something entirely new, needful and expedient, is a faculty by no means given to every one, but it is through this gift that the world makes progress. In William H. Zorn, inventor, Harrisburg, Nebraska, is a man who has turned his talents to good account. Mr. Zorn was born in West Virginia, August 21, 1856, and is a son of Joseph and Amy J. (Richards) Zorn, both natives of Virginia.
   The parents moved to Logan county, Ohio, and from there in 1871, started overland to Nebraska. After many adventures they reached Dodge county, where the father invested in land. He later became interested in a nursery business and for five years sold fruit trees for the Stephens Nursery Company of North Rend, Nebraska. In May, 1887, he. came to Banner county and pre-empted land on sections 34-17-38, and the family lived on the place until 1900. They endured many privations and very often the larder was supplied by the prowess of the sons who hunted antelope. In the above year the father moved to Harrisburg and bought a livery stable, conducting the same until 1912, and his death occurred the next year. The mother survived until October, 1914. Of their five children, three sons and one daughter are living.
   William H. Zorn had common school advantages in Ohio. After the family came to Nebraska, he followed farming until 1888, at which time he homesteaded for himself in Banner county and lived on his land for twelve years, moving then to Harrisburg. Since then he has devoted himself to perfect-



ing his inventions, many of which have not yet been patented but several have been very generally accepted, among which are two automobile gates, an end gate rod and an equalizer for windmills. The value of all these devices have been proved by wide use and in the near future Mr. Zorn will have patents on others equally ingenious and useful. Mr. Zorn recalls pioneer experiences with pleasant memories. While there were hardships, it was a hardy, wholesome life for youths and he and his brother thrived on it.
   Mr. Zorn remembers seeing as many as a hundred head of wild horses in a drove in what was called Wild Horse corral. They hunted antelope with trained horses and dogs. Mr. Zorn is a Republican in politics.

    JOHN V. BRODHEAD, who is a progressive farmer and ranchman of Banner county, has become one of the substantial men of this section through persistant industry, careful saving and wise investing. He was born in Pike county, Pennsylvania, December 29, 1854, and is a son of David 0. and Marie (Van Etten) Brodhead, both of whom were born in Pennsylvania, where the father died in January, 1912, and the mother in February, 1916. They were members of the Presbyterian church. Of their nine children five are living, John V. being the only member in Nebraska.
   With a common school education and sound home training John V. Brodhead started out for himself when twenty years old. He worked as a farmer until 1886, in his native state then came to eastern Nebraska and in 1887, to Banner county and homesteaded near Flowerfield. He lived on that property for eight years, moving then to Kimball, but in 1904 he returned to Banner county and bought the land on which he lives on section sixteen, township nine, where he farms over a hundred acres and raises a hundred head of cattle yearly. He has owned at least four thousand acres and yet has twelve hundred acres of ranch land. Mr. Brodhead has prospered greatly since returning to Banner county, at which time his stock consisted of two cows and two horses. Mr. Brodhead is a stockholder in the Banner County Bank.
   In Pennsylvania, in March, 1878, Mr. Brodhead was united in marriage to Miss Margaret I. Cronn, a daughter of Clarkson and Elizabeth (Runyan) Cronn, natives of Pennsylvania who homesteaded in Banner county, Nebraska, near Flowerfield, in 1887. They now reside in Oregon. Of the seven children born to Mr. and Mrs. Brodhead the following survive: Ada M., who is the wife of Ethan Tracy, living near Norwood, Colorado; David C., who lives in South Harrisburg, married Allie Wyatt; and John H., who has recently returned from overseas service as a soldier in the World War, married Helen Smith and they live at Norwood, Colorado. Mrs. Brodhead is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. He has long been a member of the order of Knights of Pythias. In politics he has always been identified with the Republican party, believing thoroughly in its principles and never desiring public office. He was chosen a member of the school board, however, and served with great usefulness for nine years.
   In recalling early days in Banner county, Mr. Brodhead remarks that he and wife came to Nebraska in order to secure land and establish a permanent home. At that time land in Pennsylvania was held at a prohibitive price for the ordinary young man with a growing family. They met with many discouraging conditions after reaching here and went through some real hardships, but they have long since passed away. During those early years he worked hard, often riding the range for days without seeing a single other person, then entered the employ of Lambert C. Kinney and was his ranch foreman for nineteen years. Mr. Brodhead is widely known and is held in universal esteem and is numbered justly with the representative men of Banner county.

    WILLIAM D. SHAUL, general farmer, stock raiser and bee man, belongs to that enterprising group of pioneers who came to Banner county in its undeveloped days, homesteaded, endured hardships and in many ways paved the road for easier traveling by the younger generation. He was born in Jackson county, Kansas, November 13, 1864.
   The parents of Mr. Shaul were Aaron and Matilda Shaul. The father was born in Madison county, Indiana, January 20, 1829, and died in Oklahoma, July 2, 1898. The mother was born in Missouri, January 18, 1838, and died in the home of a daughter at Minatare, Nebraska, November 5, 1918. Of their family of nine children, William D. is the third of the four survivors, the others being: Sylvester A., who lives at Minatare; Ida Belle the wife of Samuel Sprigs; and Lula E., who married Milton Riles of Gering. Aaron Shaul went from Indiana to Iowa when young and throughout life engaged in agricultural

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