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gressive. young business man and public-spirited citizen, is a Democrat in politics, is affiliated with the Woodmen of the World, and is also a member of the Odd Fellows. He and his wife are active communicants of the Lutheran church. Mr. Swanson is an advocate of scientific methods and progressive policies in connection with farm enterprise and for a number of years past he has held the local agency for the Nebraska Farmer, one of the leading farm papers of the middle west.
   March 4, 1918, recorded, in the city of Omaha, the marriage of Mr. Swanson to Miss Frances May Twiford, who was born in this state, where she was reared and attended school in Frontier county, later attending the public schools of Ogallala, Keith county, and later was a student in the University of Nebraska. For a time she held a clerical position in a mercantile establishment in the city of Lincoln, and prior to her marriage had been an operator in the telephone exchange in the city of Omaha. She is a daughter of George and Aurora Twiford, who became early settlers in Garden county, the father having taken up a homestead eighteen miles northeast of Oshkosh. He became a successful agriculturist and stock-raiser and died when about fifty years of age, his widow, Mrs. Aurora (Dollard) Twiford, is now a resident of Oshkosh. Mr. and Mrs. Swanson are most popular factors in the best social life of their home community.

    ALBERT M. PARMENTER has been a resident of Scottsbluff county for twenty-three years and of Nebraska for more than forty years, having crossed the Missouri river on New Year's day, 1880. He may justly be called a pioneer as his home has always been on the frontier of the different parts of the state where he has resided.
   Albert M. Parmenter is a native of the Buckeye State and was born in Williamson county, Ohio, October 30, 1858. His parents were David and Lydia (Huling) Parmenter, both of whom were natives of Ohio. The father was a farmer and passed away in 1866, while the mother had died some time before. Young Parmenter was thus left an orphan at the age of eight years and was thrown upon his own resources at an age when most children are playing with their toys and being under the watchful care of parents. The boy found employment on farms in the neighborhood and had but limited opportunity to acquire an education. was a young man of twenty-one when he decided to take the advice of Horace Greeley and "go west." He crossed the Missouri river on the first of January, 1880, and that same month took a homestead and tree claim in Custer county, Nebraska, becoming one of the first settlers of that county and resided here until 1888, when he sold out and again went west, this time to the Pacific coast where he spent some time travelling (sic) and looking over the country. Returning to Nebraska he found employment in a saw mill in Sioux county and in 1897, came to Scottsbluff county where he took up farming. In 1901, he took a homestead where he began to make permanent improvements and which has been the stage of successful operations as a farmer ever since. When the Gering irrigation ditch was projected Mr. Parmenter established the first construction camp on the work, moving there with his family in the month of February during a severe snow storm. But he had become accustomed to hardships and such an experience was not new to him.
   In Custer couny (sic), Nebraska, April 12, 1885, occurred the marriage of Albert M. Parmenter and Miss Mary Predmore. She was born in Winnishiek county, Iowa, August 6, 1859, a daughter of John and Jane (Peters) Predmore, natives of Ohio. They came to Nebraska in 1881, and were among the first settlers of Custer county where they both spent the remainder of their lives.
   Two children have come to bless the home of Mr. and Mrs. Parmenter: Lyda Jane, born June 23, 1886, is the wife of Arthur Clure, residing at Minatare and they have seven children: Florence, Verl, Marion, Virgil, Lawrence, Iola and Ila; the second child, John Arthur, married Etta Bartow and resides at Gering. They have two children: Marie and Mabel.
   Mr. Parmenter has a well improved farm of one hundred and sixty acres, seventy acres of it being under irrigation and the place is devoted to general farming. Though over sixty years of age Mr. Parmenter would easily be taken for a man much younger and is still active in the operation of the place. He is one of the substantial men of the community and takes an active interest in all things pertaining to the welfare of the neighborhood. The family are members of the Methodist church and in politics he is a Republican.

   ORVAL SMITH, who is an experienced and successful farmer near Bayard, Nebraska, came to this state with his parents when seven years old, was reared, educated and married here and probably entertains for Nebrasko (sic) the



feelings of a native son. He was born, however, in central Illinois, in old McLean county, June 4, 1880.
   The parents of Mr. Smith were Stephen and Amelia (Wiley) Smith, the latter of whom was born in McLean county sixty years ago, and now a widow, living at Bayard. The father of Mr. Smith was born in Kentucky and before coming to Nebraska, had been a farmer in Iowa and Illinois. In 1887 he brought his family to this state and settled in old Cheyenne county, now Morrill, where he secured a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres and pre-empted one hundred and sixty more. At that time it was all dry land but the entire extent is at present under irrigation. He was a very industrious man and believed in substantial improvement, therefore this land is very valuable. His death occurred in 1917.
   Orval Smith remained at home, attended the public schools, and assisted his father as a general farmer. At present he owns a one hundred acre farm one and a half miles from Bayard, carrying on diversified farming, and owns four unimproved lots. In Morrill county, in 1905, Mr. Smith was united in marriage to Miss Viola Roberts, who was born in Iowa and is a daughter of Wilburn and Nancy (Duncan) Roberts. Her parents were natives of Kentucky who moved to Iowa and from there, in the spring of 1887 came to Morrill county and homesteaded one hundred and sixty acres. The father carried on general farming until his death. The mother of Mrs. Smith lives at Bayard. Mr. and Mrs. Smith have had five children, namely: Dora, Violet, Lyle, Louis and Orval, all of whom survive except Orval.

    GEORGE DE GRAW, one of the substantial farmers of Morrill county, has great reason to be satisfied with the land investment he made here in 1902, for he has a beautiful farm of one hundred and sixty acres, well improved and exceedingly productive. Mr. DeGraw developed his farm from wild prairie and the result is very creditable to his industry and good judgment.
   George DeGraw was born at St. Paul, Minnesota, November 5, 1863, a son of Frederick and Elizabeth (Todd) DeGraw. His father, of French Canadian ancestry, was born in Canada, June 13, 1838, and was eighteen years old when he came to the United States. He served as a soldier in the Civil War and later became a general farmer in Minnestoa (sic). For some years he has lived comfortably retired in Wyoming. Mr. DeGraw's mother was born in Minnesoa (sic), and died when he was quite young. He grew up on the home farm and attended school, remaining in his native state until 1887, when he came to Nebraska and secured a homestead in Cheyenne county, near Dalton, where he remained for six years, moving then to Sidney and buying a ranch in that vicinity. In 1902, he came to Morrill county with the intention of buying land if he found a satisfactory tract, with the result that he became the owner of his present farm, situated on section 12-20-51.
   At Sidney, Nebraska:, December 7, 1897, Mr. DeGraw was united in marriage to Miss Stella Wymer, who was born in Minnesota, February 18, 1877. Her parent were Joseph and Anna (Havens) Wymer, the latter of whom lives at Gering, Nebraska. Mrs. DeGraw's father was of Pennsylvania Dutch stock and was born in Pennsylvania. He was a general farmer and lived to the age of eighty-seven years. The following children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. DeGraw: Fred, who is the home farmer; Hannah, the wife of Vern Dexter, of Gering; and Iris, May, Nellie, George, Eugene, Eunice, Lora, Pearl, Andrew and Alice, a sturdy family of which any parents or community may well be proud.

    COLE HUNT, whose thorough farm methods and general enterprise are making the old Hunt homestead one of the best farm properties in Morrill county, was born in Alliance, Nebraska, April 13, 1895, and has spent his life in his native state. With the good judgment that marks many young men in modern days, he has chosen agruculture (sic) as his life work and is devoting his best energies to the further development of the excellent property left by his father.
   The parents of Mr. Hunt were John and Lillie (Gilmore) Hunt, the former born in Ohio, June 9, 1848, and the latter in York county, Nebraska, June 3, 1864, the first white child born in Nebraska Territory, Class A Territorial Association. In 1875, John Hunt came to eastern Nebraska where he bought land and followed farming for some years, then moved to Box Butte county and homesteaded and the family lived there for eight years. In 1898, Mr. Hunt saw what he considered better opportunities in Morrill county, came here and bought two hundred and forty acres of land which, at that time, were entirely unimproved. He continued the practical development of his property until the close of his life. He was widely known and highly respected. To John Hunt and his wife the fol-

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