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well ordered merchandise business at the county seat Mr. Gumaer was born at Weyauwega, Wisconsin on January 11, 1873, and in the sketches of his elder brothers is given record concerning the family history. He was young when be came with his brother Henry G. to St. Paul, Howard county, Nebraska, where be attended the public schools, and later took a course in the Bryant & Stratton Business College in the city of Chicago. Thereafter he was for seven years running a grocery store at Ashland, Wisconsin, on the shores of Lake Superior, and the following year he engaged in the collection business in that city. In 1897, he went to Alaska, but in the following year when the nation became involved in war with Spain, his patriotism and loyalty prompted him to return from the north and tender his services as a soldier. He enlisted in Company L, Second Volunteer infantry, which did gallant service in Porto (sic) Rico during the Spanish-American War. Prior to this he had been for five years a member of the National Guard. After the close of the war and receiving his honorable discharge, Mr. Gumaer became a solicitor for the Fox River Telephone Company, in Wisconsin, holding this position four years. In 1902, he returned to Nebraska arid became associated with his brother Henry in agricultural and livestock operations in the present Garden county. After three years he was made manager of the general store of W. W. Bowers, at Oshkosh, and held this position until 1909, when he removed to the new town of Lisco, this county, where he became secretary and manager of the Lisco Mercantile company, besides gaining the distinction of becoming the first resident of the town. He lived in Lisco seven and one-half years, and, then impaired health caused him to pass about a year in the city of Omaha, where he received medical treatment. Upon his return to Garden county he became one of the interested principals in the Oshkosh Mercantile Company, to the affairs of which he has since given his attention and to the upbuilding of the substantial business of which he has contributed in large measure. Mr., Gumaer is a Democrat, he is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and his wife is an Eastern Star. His religious faith is that of the Presbyterian church, Mrs. Gumaer holding membership in the Methodist Episcopal church. December 11, 1906, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Gumaer to Miss Zulah Mae Bowers, who was born at Caldwell, Kansas, but was reared and educated in what is now Garden county, Nebraska. She attended the schools of Alliance, Lodgpole(sic), Chappell and Oshkosh. Mr. and Mrs. Gumaer have two children: Viola Ruth and Priscilla Mae.

    AMBROSE E. SCOTT. -- In considering the wonderful advantages that have resulted from the application of irrigation to the arid lands in many sections, it is no small honor to have been the originator of the idea, and such honor may be justly claimed by Ambrose E. Scott, formerly of Banner county, Nebraska, but now one of the leading business men of Scottsbluff. Furthermore, Mr. Scott was so thoroughly convinced of the value of his idea that he built the first reservoir ever constructed in Banner county.
   Ambrose E. Scott was born at New Concord, Ohio, in 1863, the sixth in a family of twelve children born to William S. and Violet Jane (Scott) Scott, the other survivors being as follows: Charles, who lives in Texas; Alexander, a farmer near Twin Falls, Idaho, and Alvah B., a physician of the osteopathic school at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The parents were natives of Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, from which state they moved to Ohio and died there. The father was a superintendent of construction on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad for many years. He was a veteran of the Civil War, having served four years in the Fifteenth Ohio volunteer infantry, during which time he was wounded and was captured by the enemy and was incarcerated in Libby prison for three weeks. Both he and wife were members of the United Presbyterian church. The Scott family came to America from the north of Ireland and are descended from a long line of fine Scotch-Irish ancestors, who played important parts in the history of Scotland and the Emerald Isle.
   Ambrose E. Scott had some school advantages in Ohio. In 1886 he came to Banner county, Nebraska, and in 1887 took a homestead on which he afterward lived for thirty years. There he figured prominently in the history of that county as will be mentioned in different subjects by the historian in the history of the county. In 1917 he left his farm and came to Scottsbluff and later went into the farm implement business in partnership with Guy Carlson and they are doing a heavy business.
   In 1902 Mr. Scott was united in marriage with Miss Ida Eckerson, who was born in Iowa, and they have one son, Charles H. Mrs. Scott also proved up a claim in Banner county. While living there Mr. Scott served two terms as county treasurer, elected on the Republican ticket. He belongs to the order of Modern



Woodmen and to the Knights of Pythias, in which organization he has passed all the chairs. Mr. Scott is widely known and is deeply interested in the work of the different irrigation districts.

    ELMER J. HARNESS has been a resident of Garden county from the time of his birth, is a representative of one of the pioneer families of this section of the state and has gained a secure status as a prosperous and enterprising agriculturists and stock-grower, his operations being conducted on the old homestead of his father, situated two miles west of Oshkosh.
   Elmer John Harness was born at Oshkosh, this county, December 23, 1892, a son of John and Ella (Martin) Harness, the former of whom was born and reared in Illinois and the latter in the state of Connecticut; by a prior marriage Mrs. Harness has one son, William Brown, now a resident of Denver Colorado. In 1886, John Harness came to Cheyenne county, Nebraska, and became a pioneer settler in that part of the county that now constitutes Garden county. Here he took up, improved and perfected title to a homestead now owned and occupied by his son Elmer. Mr. Harness continued his activities as an agriculturist and stock-raiser until his death, in 1904, at the age of fifty-two years. He was a sterling citizen who commanded the esteem of his friends and his name merits place among the pioneers of Garden county, where his widow still resides, her home being about three miles west of Oshkosh.
   Elmer J. Harness attended the pioneer schools of Garden county and he was a lad of fourteen years at the time of his father's death. Thus as a youth he gladly assumed the burdens and responsibilities of making his own way and also providing for his widowed mother. For three years he was engaged in farming on rented land, six miles west of Oshkosh, then returned to the old homestead, where he has since held place as one of the representative agriculturists and stock-growers of the younger generation, specializing in raising hogs. Liberal and loyal as a citizen, he supports those agencies and enterprises that tend to advance the welfare of his home community and county, his political allegiance being given to the Republican party and his religious faith being that of the Lutheran church, of which his wife likewise is an active communicant.
   At Alliance, Box Butte county, on October 15, 1913, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Harness to Miss Gertrude Catron, of Bridgeport, Morrill county, where she was born and reared, being a daughter of Isaac and Anna (Foote) Catron, who are pioneer citizens who reside on their farm, four and one-half miles northeast of Bridgeport. Mr. and Mrs. Harness have a winsome little daughter, Viola May, who was born April 27, 1919.

    JACOB H. ROUDEBUSH is a pioneer citizen who merits recognition in this history not only by reason of the prominent and influential part he has played in connection with the civic and industrial development and upbuilding of western Nebraska, but also because of his service in the Union army during the latter part of the Civil War. He took part in the suppression of Indian outbreaks in the west, and gained an experience that but few survivors of his generation can claim. Mr. Roudebush is one of the extensive landholders of Garden county and well known farmers.
   Mr. Roudebush was born in Licking county, Ohio, January 11, 1846, a son of Jacob and Salome (Kuhn) Roudebush, the former a native of Germany and the latter of the state of Pensylvania (sic). Mrs. Roudebush died when forty-five years old. Jacob Roudebush, was eighteen years of age when he came from Germany to America and settled in Bedford county, Pennsylvania, where he engaged in agricultural pursuits until he removed with his family to Ohio. In the Buckeye state he continued to farm until 1848, when he became a pioneer of Iowa, where he reclaimed and developed a good farm and where he passed the remainder of his life. He was a resident of Salem, at the time of his death, which occurred when he was seventy-two years of age.
   Jacob H. Roudebush was reared in Iowa, where he availed himself of the advantages of the common schools and where he early began to assist in the work on his father's pioneer farm. In 1864, at the age of eighteen years, Mr. Roudebush tendered his service in defense of the Union, enlisting in Company A, Seventh Iowa Cavalry, which was assigned to the command of General Sully, and took part in the campaign against the Sioux Indians on the Missouri river, in what is now South Dakota. Later Mr. Roudebush was sent with his regiment to Little Rock, Arkansas, then proceeded to Fort Kearney, Nebraska, being assigned to service at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. In Wyoming Mr. Roudebush did much scouting service and also participated in the fight with the Indians at Horse Creek, in which engagement Captain Fouch was killed. For a time the regiment was stationed at Fort Mc-



Pherson, then proceeded to New Mexico, where it was in active Indian service under Generals Curtis and Mitchell, as a part of a force of twelve hundred men. From New Mexico., Mr. Roudebush returned to Fort McPherson, and later he was stationed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where he was mustered out on May 17, 1866, and received his honorable discharge.
   After the close of this service as a soldier, Mr. Roudebush returned to Iowa, where he farmed about four years. He then removed to Osborn county, Kansas, and took a preemption claim, but drouth caused his crops to fail, with the result that he left his claim and made his way to Missouri, where he was engaged in farming for two and one-half years. In 1884, he became one of the pioneer settlers in that part of Cheyenne county, Nebraska, that now constitutes Garden county. He perfected title to his original homestead, and with increasing prosperity he added gradually to his holdings, until he is now the owner of a ranch of more than thirty six hundred acres, as well as a section of school land and four acres at Oshkosh, the county seat of Garden county. He has given special attention to the raising of live stock, his ranch at the present time showing an average run of two hundred head of cattle and about fifty head of horses.
   Mr. Roudebush has been a leader in community thought and action during the long years of his residence in Nebraska, and prior to the creation of Garden county he served six years as a member of the board of county commissioners of Deuel county. After the organization of Garden county he was chosen a commissioner, serving four years and did much to further the advancement and prosperity of the new county. He is a Democrat, is affiliated with the post of the Grand Army of the Republic at Chappell and holds membership in Oshkosh Lodge, No. 268, Ancient Free and Accepted Mason, his wife being a member of the Lutheran church.
   The first marriage of Mr. Roudebush was solemnized September 9, 1869, at New London, Henry county, Iowa, where Miss Anna E. Brown became, his wife, she having been born and reared in that county. Mrs. Roudebush died when but thirty-five years of age, and was survived by six children: William E., who is a resident of California, has four children; Mrs. Hattie M. Sarser resides at Oshkosh, Garden county, and her only child, Jacob C. Slater, was born of her first marriage; Frederick R., is married and resides at Oshkosh, as does also Ira; Jacob C. is a resident of Bayard, Morrill county, and is the father of six children, and Mrs. Laura B. Vance, of Oshkosh, has four children.
   On September 21, 1891, Mr. Roudebush married Miss Sarah Isabel Hunter, who was born and reared in Missouri and came with her parents to the present Garden County, Nebraska, about 1889. Of this union were born nine children: George and John are residents of Oshkosh, the former having one child and the latter being the father of two children; Frank remains at home; Daisy died in 1917; Harry, Mary, Theodore R., Thomas R., and Emma.

    JOSEPH PEBLEY, is a well known farmer and stockman of Garden county, where he established his residence more than thirty years ago, when it was a part of Deuel county. He has been the architect of his own fortunes, and began his career when he was a lad of sixteen years. He is one of the popular pioneer citizens of Garden county and it is gratifying to accord him recognition in this history.
   Mr. Pebley was born in Atchison county, Missouri, on May 30, 1866, a son of Jeremiah and Rhoda (Morgan) Pebley, the former a native of Missouri and the latter of Tennessee, where she was reared and educated. Jeremiah Pebley, a farmer by vocation, passed his entire life in Missouri and died at the age of sixty-six years, at Craig. His widow lived to be seventy-four years old, being a resident of Amorette, Missouri, at the time of her death.
   Joseph Pebley attended the schools of his native state and early learned the lessons of practical industry, and began to farm when sixteen years old, but two years later, in 1887, came to Nebraska and settled in Butler county, where he was engaged in agriculture for the ensuing nine years. He then spent one year in Arkansas, and returned to Nebraska to settle in that part of Deuel county that now comprises Garden county, where he has maintained his home since 1898. Here he proved up on a homestead claim. He was engaged for the first few years in freighting from Chappell to Oshkosh, his earnings in this service enabling him to improve his land, to which he has since added another quarter-section, so that he now has an excellent form of three hundred and twenty acres, with good buildings and given over to diversified agriculture and the raising of cattle and hogs. Mr. Pebley is always ready to lend his cooperation in



support of measures and enterprises tending to advance the communal welfare, and is a Democrat.
   At Ulysses, Nebraska, January 29, 1888, was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Pebley to Miss Mae Horner, who was born in Richardson county, this state, a daughter of Ephraim and Mary Anna (Robbins) Horner, both natives of Ohio, though the latter was reared and educated in Missouri, where her marriage occurred and where she died at the age of forty-two years. Epraim Horner, a millwright by trade and vocation, was a young man when he established his residence in Missouri, whence he came to Nebraska and settled in Richardson county in 1887. In 1895, he returned to Missouri, but eventually he returned to Nebraska, and now resides at Syracuse, Otoe county, at the patriarchal age of Ninety-one (sic) year (sic), in 1920. He was a soldier of the Union in the Civil War, throughout the entire course of which he served as a member of the Forty-seventh Missouri Cavalry. Mr. and Mrs. Pebley have five children: Earl J., who resides a Mumper, Garden county, married Miss Clara Johnson and they have four children; Rosa is the wife of Frank Shaw, of Oshkosh, this county; and Harry L., Blanche and Irene remain at home.

    GEORGE F. ALLEN first came to what is now Deuel county in the early pioneer days, and thought (sic) at that time he took up a homestead, drouth and other unfavorable conditions made his farm venture a failure, with the result that he returned to the eastern part of the state. A number of years later he again came to Garden county and here ample success has now crowned his activities as an agriculturist and stock-raiser, his homestead place being situated ten miles northeast of Oshkosh, and it value being enhanced by a considerable acreage of timber. Mr. Allen has made good improvements on his farm, and each year records a definite advancement along this line, as well as in the returns from the energetic and well directed efforts which he is putting forth in his agricultural and livestock industry.
   Mr. Allen has the distinction of being a native of New York City, where he was born on the 6th of June, 1848. He was reared and educated in Ohio and Nebraska, as the adopted son of kindly foster parents, Mr. and Mrs. James McLaughlin, and he was about ten years of age at the time of the removal to the latter state. Vital and self-reliant, he was not yet fiften (sic) years old when he initiated independent activities in connection with farm enterprise, in which he thus continued about twenty years in Cass county, Nebraska. He then came to the western part of the state and became a youthful pioneer of that part of Cheyenne county that now constitutes Deuel county where he took up a homestead and attempted to develop a farm. Protracted drouth made his success of negative order and thus he was virtually compelled to abandon his claim and return to the eastern part of the state, where he continued his farm activities several years. In 1903, he came again to Garden county, where he has since resided on the homestead which he took at this time and where his success has caused him to forget the failure that attended his efforts in earlier years. He is a substantial and popular citizen of his community, is a Republican in political adherency.
   In Cass county, this state, in 1870, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Allen to Miss Rhoda Root, a daughter of Charles and Mary (Splittstone) Root, who were pioneer settlers in Cass county, as were they later in Garden county, Mr. Root having died when about sixty years of age and his wife having passed away when about fifty years of age, she having been a native of Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Allen have three children: Charles Edward, of Oshkosh, is married and has two children; Willis, of Big Spring, Deuel county, is married and has two children; and Mrs. Clara V. Duval, of North Platte, Lincoln county, deceased, had three children by a former marriage, Delbert, Charles and William Emmerson.

    ANGUST (sic) BUSKE, a representative pioneer and successful agriculturist and stockman of Garden county, has gained substantial success, is a large landholder, and stands high in popular confidence and esteem.
   Mr. Buske was born in Stetten, Germany, May 14, 1852, a son of Charles Buske, who passed his entire life in Germany. August Buske was afforded the advantages of the schools of his native land, and there, at the age of twenty-six years, he began to farm and spent five years in this industry before becoming foreman on a large hay farm for one year. He then immigrated to America and established his residence at Ford River, Michigan, being employed in a saw mill for five years. In 1887, he came to Nebraska and for the ensuing five years he was employed in a stone quarry near Louisville, Cass county. He then, in 1892, became a pioneer of what is now

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