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   Having been a cattle man for so many years with the Fields, he realized that blooded animals payed (sic) the greatest dividends in the long run and he has nothing but thoroughbred Herefords, a breed in which he specializes.
   All the arable land is highly cultivated, producing fine crops of all kinds and forage for the stock, for Mr. Heinz is a firm believer in intensive farming under water rights. He is modern in methods, studies the farm problems of the day, advocates and practices modern methods while there is not a ranch in the Panhandle where better and more modern equipment can be found, to increase production and lighten the work of the hands. Mr. Heinz is a high type of the American farmer, he is public spirited and lives up to his own standard of citizenship, taking an active and prominent part in public affairs, as he is a school director of his district. During his residence here, he has been vice-president of the Water Users Association and promotes every movement for the benefit of Sioux county. Mr. Heinz does his own thinking and is an independent voter and with his family attends the Presbyterian church.
   In 1898, occurred Mr. Heniz' (sic) marriage to Miss Cora Belle Clark, a native daughter of Nebraska, born at Stanton, where she was reared and received her education. To this union six children have been born: Carlisle R., Howard H., George M., John Everett E., and J. C., deceased.

    TULLIUS C. HALLEY. -- Perhaps there are men in the Platte valley who know more about the sheep industry than Tullius C. Halley, an extensive breeder of this invaluable animal, in Scottsbluff county, but it is not probable, for he has devoted many years to this business under all conditions, and his reputation in this line of activity is widespread and substantial.
   Tullius C. Halley was born in Callaway county, Missouri, January 22, 1876, the son of Thomas H. and Mildred A. (Craighead) Halley, both natives of Virginia but residents of Missouri from childhood, the members of both families being early settlers in Calloway county, extensive landowners and successful farmers and stock-raisers. Mr. Halley's father was a man of public consequence in Callaway county, a leading Democrat, and served for eighteen years as county surveyor and road and bridge commissioner. Both parents were members of the Baptist church. Of their nine children Tullius C. was the youngest in order of birth the others being: Fannie, the wife of P. H. Smith, a farmer in Missouri; H. C., a farmer and stockman in Missouri; J. J., who practiced medicine for twenty-seven years in Benton City, Missouri, and Fort Collins, Colorado, is now a farmer and stockman of Scottsbluff, Nebraska; C. R., a physician and surgeon of Sheridan, Wyoming; Thomas H., a farmer and stockman near Fulton, Missouri, is circuit court clerk of Callaway county; S. C., a physician of Fort Collins, Colorado; N. G., a farmer and stockman near Fort Collins, and Georgia, the fifth in order of birth, is deceased.
   Tullius C. Halley had excellent educational advantages, attending first a military academy at Mexico, Missouri, and later at the normal school at Chillicothe, Missouri, after which, for two years he engaged in teaching school in his native state. It was in 1899 that Mr. Halley went to Colorado and first became interested in the sheep growing industry. He started, with practically no capital, by maintaining a sheep farm and feeding for other people, at that time having much to learn about the business. He was determined, however, to make a success of this venture, and continued his operations in Colorado and Wyoming until 1907, when he came to Scottsbluff county, bought land and began feeding and shipping sheep. He has developed this business into a great enterprise and through bard work has not only built up a comfortable fortune for himself, but has given great encouragement to an industry that stands among the first in importance in supplying food to the world.
   In 1905, at Cheyenne, Wyoming, Mr. Halley married Miss May Congdon, who was born in Michigan, a daughter of Patrick and Mary Congdon, both of whom are deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Halley have the following children: Mildred, Mary. and Jean, all of whom are doing well in school; and Thomas A., who has reached his fourth birthday. Mrs. Halley is a member of the Roman Catholic Church. Mr. Halley owns four hundred acres of fine irrigated land and in the summer of 1917 completed a handsome modern residence that is one of the county's beautiful country homes. In his political views he is a Democrat. He has never accepted political preferment, the rapid growth of his personal interests pretty fairly occupying his time. In a fraternal way he is identified with the order of Yoemen.

   LEWIS EMERSON UTTER, one of the pioneer settlers of western Nebraska and the Panhandle, who has lived here for more than forty years and seen the great development



and changes that have taken place and who by his own unaided efforts has achieved success as a ranchman, is today one of the well to do and honored men of the Wheatland community where he stands high.
   Lewis Emerson Utter was born in Ulster county, New York, January 7, 1866, the son of Harmon and Mary M. (Tubbs) Utter, the former of German and Dutch descent while the mother was of pure English stock. They were both born and reared in Ulster county, New York; the father died in 1919 and the mother in 1913.
   Mr. Utter was reared in New York state and attended the public schools of his community but a short time and says that what education he has he acquired himself, largely in the school of experience. He remained at home until 1883, when he came west to Nebraska, locating in Custer county, but three years later came to Cheyenne county and took a homestead on the head of pumpkin creek which later became a part of the Pierson Ranch. Mr. Utter ranched some, taught school and farmed while on Pumpkin creek but in the early nineties sold his land to A. H. Pierson and moved to the Wheatland locality. He experienced all the ups and downs of farming and ranching in the Panhandle of those early days but remained on his land until 1905, when he sold his property and moved onto a ranch in western Nebraska which is now known as the Last Camp Ranch, consisting of four thousand acres. Mr. Utter has made a success of his ranching and stock-raising and is one of the prominent men of his district, where he has attained comfort and fortune through his own business enterprises.
   May 9, 1902, Mr. Utter married at Cheyenne, Wyoming, Miss Fannie E. Sudduth*, who died October 9, 1915. She was the daughter of Benjamin F. and Mary A. Suddath*, the former born in Kentucky, moved to Illinois in early life, while the mother was born at Lands End, England and came to the United States when a child. One child was born to Mr. and Mrs. Utter, Aileen D.
   Mr. Utter was raised a Democrat but says that he was forced into the ranks of the Republican party by the conviction that the fundimental (sic) priciples (sic) of this party are more American and safer for the country. He is a member of the Masonic order, belonging to the Wheatland lodge, is also and (sic) Odd Fellow and a member of the Woodmen of the World. Mr. Utter is a member of the Christian church.
* Surname spelled two ways.

    HAROLD S. THOMAS. -- Prominent among the operators in real estate and insurance also doing a loan business, is a native son of this state, Harold S. Thomas, who established himself in business in Alliance in 1909, and since that time has so ably directed his activities and operations that he is listed among the leading members of the younger generation of financial men of the county seat.
   Mr. Thomas was born at Elwood, Gosper county, July 9, 1891 the son of John W. Thomas of Lincoln, Nebraska. The father was a minister of the Methodist Episcopal church who moved from one town to another as he was called to take charge of different congregations. Some of the towns and villages were Wallace, Maywood, Wellfleet, North Platte, Beaver City, Alma and Orleans, and young Harold attended school in Beaver City, Alma and Orleans before the family moved to Omaha in 1902, where he enrolled in the Bancroft, Lincoln and Castellar schools for his elementary studies. When only eight years old he had entered a printing office to learn the trade of printer and continued to work at this occupation during his vacations till he was a competent man of that exacting business. In 1909, he came to Alliance in February and the following summer attended the junior normal school course following the same plan the next summer, as he wished to take some special journalistic courses to fit himself for general newspaper work. A year later he accepted a position in the office of the Alliance Herald and remained on the staff of that publication until 1914, when he resigned to accept a fine offer of the Reese Printing Company of Omaha. While living there, Mr. Thomas took a business course offered by the Young Men's Christian Association in the night school to perfect himself in busines (sic) methods. In 1916, he removed to Gordon, Nebraska, to take a position in the Fair Department store as stenographer and bookkeeper, remained two years and then in the spring of 1918, went to Lincoln to attend the radio course given by the University of Nebraska, and on June 20, of that year enlisted in the Signal Corps of the United States army for service during the war with Germany. Mr. Thomas was immediately sent to Plattsburg Barracks, New York, for training with the Three hundred and twenty-first Field Signal Battalion, with which organization he remained until the signing of the armistice. On September 1, 1918, he sailed from New York on the Australian steamship Katooba, and landed at Liverpool, England, twelve days later. From that city he went to



Southhampton by rail, crossed the English channel about September 20, landing in France at La Havre. Proceeding to St. Agnon by rail the battalion marched to Choussy, remained there ten day (sic) then on to Cormeray, on foot, where it remained and sent men to the front as replacements. Here Mr. Thomas was assigned to duty as Battalion Sergeant-Major. Upon the signing of the armistice he was transferred to Headquarters of the Third army, and immediately started for Dun-sur-Meuse and managed to catch up with the Third army which was on the march toward Germany to become a part of the Army of Occupation, the day after it arrived at the city of Luxemburg. After several days spent there, Mr. Thomas went by truck to Mayen, where another pause in the march was made before the army continued on to Coblenz, where it arrived December 15, 1918. Here he became Chief Signal Corps supply clerk for the Third army, assigned to duty in the office of the chief signal officer. On April 1, 1919, Mr. Thomas was taken sick and rushed to the hospital to be operated upon for acute appendicitis, and having received orders for return to the United States, left the hospital May 1. On May 14, he left Coblenz for St. Angon and sailed from St. Nazaire June 2, on the United States Steamship Suwanee, formerly the German steamer Mark. Landing at Charleston, South Carolina, June 16, he was discharged from the service three days later at Camp Jackson, and arrived home in Lincoln on the 22d. Mr. Thomas remained in the capital city visiting friends for several days and then came on home, reaching Alliance on August 4. From that time he has been connected with the Thomas-Bald Investment Company. He is a member of the Yeoman Lodge at Aliance (sic), the American Legion and the Methodist Episcopal church.
   On June 28, 1911, Mr. Thomas married Miss Ivy Hale and two children have been born to them: Paul Creighton, at Alliance, September 13, 1912, and Claudia Pearl, at Gordon, August 5, 1917.

    JOHN T. WATSON, deceased, was one of the best known and most picturesque characters of the early life of northwestern Nebraska and the Panhandle. He was one of the early residents of Box Butte county when this section was little settled; was a typical pioneer and gained fame as a wolf hunter when these animals threatened the stock of the ranchers.
   John Taylor Watson was born in Rome, Henry county, Iowa, December 25, 1848, and when two years of age was taken by his parents to Madison county, Iowa, and two years later to Cass county, Iowa, where he was reared and received his education in the schools of that locality. In 1886, he came to Box Butte county, Nebraska, where he homesteaded and lived on his ranch for fifteen years, later moving to a ranch in Sioux county. His first home was near Box Butte postoffice, some sixteen miles northeast of where Alliance now is located and made many friends there as well as at his home in Sioux county. In later years Mr. Watson sold his ranch and moved to Mitchell but visited Alliance and Box Butte county frequently. For more than twelve year (sic) he lived in Mitchell before his death. Mr. Watson was married three times but is survived by no children. His last wife, the widow of the late Alexander Noble, of Mitchell, died a few months before her husband.
   In the early days here Mr. Watson had many thrilling adventures and experiences, among them that of freighting during the Indian war, when in 1890 and 1891, the Sioux began their ghost dances and the government had to take steps to quell the uprising as the Indians believed that they could only save their lands by a wholesale massacre of the whites. The Box Butte county men who needed money took work freighting the supplies to the soldiers at the Pine Ridge agency and Mr. Watson was one who made more trips than anyone. When the wolves threatened the stock of the ranchers he was employed by the northwestern cattlemen's association to kill them and given a bounty of twenty-five dollars for each wolf killed. He employed dogs in the capture of the wolves and was so successful that he followed the vocation for months at a time. In later years Mr. Watson was greatly in demand for public celebrations as he was able to handle large crowds and was selected for marshall of the day. For more than twenty-five years, the commanding figure of Mr. Watson on his horse, Jack, was sought on state occasions at Crawford, Fort Robinson, Alliance and Mitchell, as well as other places to lead processions, also the county fair, stock growers' conventions and public gatherings.
   Mr. Watson died at his home in Mitchell March 1, 1921, and was buried at Hemingford. He was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, which had charge of his funeral. He was a man who possessed a true heart who had many friends of long standing in the Panhandle where he had taken a prominent part in development and progress.



   RICHARD H. ARNOLD, one of the hardy pioneers and early settlers of Dawes county who came here at an early day and took his part in the opening up and settlement of the country, has for years been one of the well known ranchers and live-stock men who is widely known as a prosperous business man. As one of the first men to locate in this section he deserves a place in the history of Dawes county for he tells many interesting incidents of its early history which he helped to make.
   Mr. Arnold was born near Washington, Washington county, Iowa, September 6, 1862, the son of William M. and Rebeccah J. (Merchant) Arnold, the former a native of Fayette county, Ohio, was the second of the nine children born to his parents. His father was a farmer and the boy was reared in the country, attended the public schools in the winter and worked on the home place in the summer time. He early learned to work and make money for himself and at the age of fourteen went to stay with an uncle, where he continued to attend school. In the fall of 1883, Mr. Arnold came west to Beatrice, Nebraska, secured work on a farm but remained only two months before coming to the Panhandle and Sioux county. He located on a pre-emption claim close to Sheridan Gates, on Bevear (sic) creek, April 22, 1884. To earn money he worked for Nick Messenger, who ran a saw mill on Bordeaux creek, and so secured the lumber with which to put up a house on his claim. Later he secured employment with W. M. Hudspath, where he earned enough money to prove up on his claim. The Hudspath land was afterward relinquished to William Braddock. In the winter of 1885, Mr. Arnold and two other men walked the hundred and fifty miles to Valentine to prove up on their claims. There was a foot and a half of snow on the ground and it took eight days to make the trip. They carried their food with them and each meal had to thaw it out. Mr. Arnold had a snow bound experience in the winter of 1884, when he was freighting corn from Valentine to the P. T. Nelson ranch, just east of the present site of Chadron. He left Valentine December 21, with a large load; it had been threatening to storm and when he was eighty miles on his way, about the location of the Fline Buttes, at the crossing of the Little White river, the storm broke. Mr. Arnold made his bed by the freight wagon, with tapaulin (sic) and a pile of blankets and in the morning found himself snowed in, he burrowed out of the drift and saw it was still storming, a real blizzard; his dog was frozen and the horses had drifted with the storm, as was eighteen miles from the nearest habitation he crawled back into his drift where he had considerable room and could keep from freezing. He remained under the snow that day and night without any food and on the second day, finding that the storm was over started for the Jack Carlow ranch, on Spring Creek. the snow covered the ground and all he had to guide him on his way were the sunflower stalks planted along the trail. He discarded everything that would weigh and hamper him and started on his trip with overshoes on his feet and blanket strips wrapped around his legs as protection against the snow and cold. Mr. Arnold walked all day and was exhausted, but kept up as he saw an animal following him and learning it was a wolf, managed to keep awake and staggered on. He finally reached the Carlson home at eleven o'clock at night, where he was fed and remained until the blizzard was over. In the sprnig (sic) of 1885, Mr. Arnold took a sub contract to carry the mail from Pine Ridge Agency to Fort Robinson, sixty-five miles away; remained on this route three months then went to work for the Ox Yoke Ranch, north of Fort Robinson, and rode the range three years. From 1889 to 1890, he was employed by a contractor who supplied beef to the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Indian Agencies.
   June 20, 1892, Mr. Arnold married Miss Laura A. Churchill, who is a native of Iowa, the daughter of Matthew M. and Nancy (Bosser) Churchill. He father was a carpenter and cabinet maker by trade who moved from Iowa to Sheridan county, Nebraska in 1885, and took a homestead in Beaver creek valley, where he farmed and worked at his trade. Mr. and Mrs. Arnold have five children: Edwin M., who married Amanda Brandt is a mechanic for the Mid West Oil Company, of Casper, Wyoming, and has two children; Grace M., the wife of Sprague O. Smith, of Chadron, who is the son of Captain Fred Smith, a captain of the militia at the time of the Indian war in 1891, has one child. Mr. Smith served in the navy during the World War. The third child is Eunice R., who graduated from the Chadron Normal School and is employed in the Citizens State Bank; Norma A., is at home and Hazel, a student is also home.
   After his marriage Mr. Arnold settled down to ranch life and the cattle business. He bought more land, dealt heavily in cattle and became one of the best known stockmen in the western part of the state. Being on the

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