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Published Monthly by the Nebraska State Historical Society
Associate Editors
The Staffs of the Nebraska State Historical Society and
Legislative Reference Bureau
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Entered as second class mail matter, under act of July 16,
1894, at Lincoln, Nebraska, April 2, 1918.             




The April Blizzard, 1873

   The slanderous proclamation by Nebraska newspapers that the well mannered snowstorm of April 3, 1920, was a blizzard because it was beneficently copious, calls for some account of the real thing of April, 1873, which began late in the afternoon of the 13th and lasted with little abatement through three nights and days. The 1920 storm increased in violence in its eastward course - a very common occurrence by the way - though it nowhere deserved the name of superlative import.
   Eastern and southwestern land interests very selfishly strove to keep the Nebraska country a perpetual dumping-ground for the Indians they wished to be rid of and accordingly opposed its territorial organization. Partly through the inertia of that early spitefulness, and for the rest through its immemorial provincialism, the East has habitually tried to be funny at the trans-Missouri country's expense. In fact, Nebraska is relatively immune from, real blizzards. There are two reliably recorded. the one of 1873; the other of 1888. There have been few, if any, others during the period of occupation by white people.
   The fortunes of Nebraska seemed so precarious even as late as the seventies that The Omaha Republican advised against telling to the world the whole truth about the storm of 1873; but the Bee and the Herald criticized their contemporary for cowardice and praised their own bold truthfulness. The hyperbole habit - applying extravagant epithets to ordinary things leaves no words properly to characterize truly extraordinary ones and thus beggars the language.
   The storm of 1873 was about two hundred miles wide in Nebraska, but it was probably most violent in the two adjoining tiers of counties comprising Nance and Platte on the north and those lying south as far as the Kansas line. It extended into Dakota on the north and Kansas on the south, but according to available reports, not very far or violently. At Yankton it was rough enough to cause severe suffering to the men and horses of the Seventh U. S. Cavalry. Papers accompanying the report of the secretary of war for 1973, inform us that this regiment was on the march from the department at the South to Fort Abraham Lincoln and Fort Rice to suppress hostile Indians and to protect surveyors of the line of the Northern Pacific railroad westward from the Missouri River, and of the northern boundary of Dakota. The staff, band and four companies left Louisville, the regiment's headquarters, on April 2, and the other eight companies started from Memphis in three separate detachments on April 3, 4 and 5. Fort Abraham Lincoln was established on the west bank of the Missouri at the crossing of the

Northern Pacific railroad, on June 14, 1872. but was called Fort McKeen until November 19, 1972. Bismarck was just getting a start not far above on the opposite side. Fort Rice was established July 11, 1864, on the west bank of the river, about twenty miles in a direct line below the subsequent site of Fort Abraham Lincoln. This regiment was part of the Yellowstone Expedition which was sent to establish a depot of supplies at a point on the projected line of the railroad near the confluence of Powder river with the Yellowstone. The site chosen was at the mouth of Glendive Creek, now within Dawson county, Montana, near its eastern boundary. The Northern Pacific railroad, in its westward course, first struck the Yellowstone at this point. The town of Glendive, on the same site, is the capital of Dawson county.
   The Daily State Journal of April 15, 1873, relates that two boys were severely injured in Lincoln on Sunday by a shed being blown over upon them; and on the 22d that a man was killed by the wind in Olive Branch precinct on Monday, but it mentions no other casualties. On the 16th the Journal said that the snow was six feet deep at Grand island and that a gale of sixty miles an hour had blown down all the telegraph wires along the Union Pacific railroad. No trains had reached Lincoln from the west on the Burlington and Missouri road but they had come in on time from the east. Lincoln was "enjoying" the fourth day of the storm on the 16th. On the 18th it said that the storm had abated on the Union Pacific line and that it hoped that communication by rail and telegraph with the Pacific slope would soon be opened.
   On the 20th - Sunday - the Journal said that General Otto Funke, of Lincoln, was snow-bound at Sutton, on the Burlington road, from Sunday until Friday, when he got to Crete on horseback. There had been great damage to buildings at Sutton and in its vicinity, and large numbers of horses and cattle were smothered in the snow. Near Grafton the house of the Keeler family, comprising husband, wife and one child, blew in upon them, and in trying to reach a neighbor's, half a mile distant, the mother and child perished. After they were dead the nearly crazed father pressed on and arrived at his goal in an exhausted condition. The storm was roughest between Grafton and Sutton.
   The Journal of the 22d says that the first train from the west reached Lincoln on the 21st. Ed. A. Church, for many years manager of the theater in Lincoln, was among the passengers. He had been visiting his family at their home near Hastings, where he was snow-bound for a week. Within two sections in the neighborhood twelve horses perished. Often roofs of stables were blown off, and then the snow filled the buildings, smothering the stock. On Sunday afternoon a man who lived near Red Cloud was visiting a neighbor two miles from his own home when the storm came, preventing his return. Fearing that he had been lost, the next morning his wife started for the neighbor's house with her little daughter. They were found dead within ten rods of their own house. One farmer in that vicinity lost seventy-five cattle. The Journal of April 24 complained of continued winter weather. According to the accounts, the storm was much severer in Seward county than in Lancaster.
   Charles B. Letton, now a Justice of the supreme court of Nebraska, was keeping house all alone in a dugout, about seven miles north of Fairbury, at the time of the storm. He relates that the spring was very forward and that the weather was extremely pleasant on the fatal Easter Sunday when a fierce northwest wind, with rain, came suddenly. On Monday morning there was a howling snowstorm and the snow had so nearly filled his stable, that two at the animals were smothered before he could dig them out. He was obliged to shelter some of the stock in his house and this was commonly done by settlers in the vicinity. Many people whose houses were unroofed or who had sought protection in ravines were frozen or smothered to death.
   Under the head, "The Storm in Platte County," The Platte Journal  of April 23, 1873; said that no human being perished in the county dur-


Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days

ing the "fearful storm" but a thousand head of cattle and a few horses, mules, sheep and chickens succumbed. The ratio of losses of cattle was not greater than in other parts of the path of the storm. H. A. Gerrard & Co. erected a temporary fence above the original fence of their corral, on the side where the snow got up to the top of it, and thus kept the cattle from getting out and drifting to destruction with the storm; and notwithstanding that there was no shelter in the enclosure, they all survived. There were no losses where good care was taken. The Journal called it "the terrific storm of April 14th, 15th and 16th." It also copied from the Kearney Press a statement that a woman who lived fifteen miles northeast of the town, whose husband was absent at Grand Island, perished in an attempt to reach a neighbor's house after the roof of her own fell in. A boy about fifteen years old started from the office of the Lone Tree Sentinel on an errand to a place only twenty rods away. he was found dead in the Platte River a mile and a half distant. Heavy losses of stock were reported from Colfax county.
   The Sioux City Journal reported that the storm was very severe at Yankton. On April 25, 1871, Captain John Mix of the Second Cavalry, commanding at Omaha Barracks, made an official report of the storm, which was printed in The Platte Journal of May 7.
   He started from Omaha on a scouting expedition after a band of Indians who had stolen horses on the North Loup. His command comprised Company M and five soldiers of Company C. It traveled by railroad to Grand Island and then marched across country. At Loup City it was caught in a hurricane of wind and rain followed by snow. The men were saved only by shelter provided by citizens in the neighborhood. The storm lasted from sundown on the 13th to six o'clock in the afternoon of the 16th. Twenty-five horses and five mules perished, and many men lost their blankets, boots and shoes. Some of the men were badly frost-bitten and some so chilled that it was very difficult to revive them. Though the horses were only sixty yards away they could not be reached. A sentinel was buried in snow from three o'clock in the morning until the next noon. The command managed to march eight miles to Oak Creek on the 17th, and on the 18th it followed down the creek ten miles to settlements, where food was obtained for men and horses and wagons for the disabled soldiers. The snow was very deep and the weather very cold.
   The record of temperatures kept at Plattsmouth makes the following showing:
   On the, 13th, 7 a. m., 56; 2 p. m., 63; 9 p. m., 54
                14th, 7 a. m., 50; 2 p. m., 47; 9 p. m., 28
                15th, 7 a. m., 31; 2 p. m., 37; 9 a. m., 29
                16th, 7 a. m., 37; 2 a. m., 42; 9 a. m., 38
   The precipitation on the 14th was rain, 2 inches; on the 15th, rain and snow, 3 inches. The lowest temperature at Denver during the storm was 18 degrees above zero.

   Copy of notes made by the Smithsonian Institution Observer, at Santee Indian Agency, Nebraska, relative to the severe storm, April 13-16, 1873.
   The great distinguishing feature of this month was the great snow storm of the 14th, the most destructive in its effects of any which has occurred in this Section for some years. It might properly be said to have commenced on the 12th with a very strong wind from SW and South which continued without interruption through that and part of the succeeding day. On the morning of the 13th about 10 a. m. a heavy cloud was seen to the South, accompanied by several reports of distant thunder; towards noon the wind veered round to NW and by night it blew strongly from the North. About 4:00 p. m. it commenced raining and continued until daylight when the snow commenced to fall and continued uninterruptedly until the afternoon of the 16th the wind meanwhile blowing a perfect hurricane. The horses and cattle that were exposed were driven before it, into ravines and by places where they were covered by the drifting snow and hundreds of them perished. It was impossible to ascertain the average depth of snow with accuracy but in placing it at 20 inches I think I have under rather than over estimated it for this first of May snow drifts can be found more than 2 feet in depth. Bazile Creek, which in ordinary times runs a stream of water 40 feet in width from 1 to 3 feet in depth and which is here dammed for milling purposes was completely dried up by the accumulated snow so that no water passed over the dam for more than a week and for several days there was none in the pool above it. The Eastern limit of this storm about 40 miles east of this place is said to have been clearly defined as though made with a line. The mean temperature of the thermometer during the snowfall was 28.11 degrees which produced a wet snow and in great measure was the cause of the wholesale destruction of animal life as it adhered to their bodies and impeded their movements until exhausted they sank under it and were smothered in the drifts.
   Copy of "Daily Journal", Omaha, Nebraska, April 13th to 17th, 1873
   13th - Barometer still gradually falling. Light rain began 10:30 a. m., ended at 1:30 p. m., 0.34 rainfall. All communication with the West was cut off, after the 6:20 a. m. report. A violent storm began in the West. From Officials of the U. P. R. R. it was learned that a great deal of damage was done by the extraordinarily high winds. A large number of lives were lost.
   14th - No communication can yet be had with the West, the lines of both telegraph companies being down and buried in 15 feet of snow. The storm still rages with unabated violence in the West, although at this point nothing more serious than heavy rains are as yet felt. Barometer quite low, Cor. 29.46, wind N., weather Lt. Rain.
   15th - Rain changed to snow during the night falling very heavy,

wind N., barometer rising, weather, Hy. Snow.
   16th - Snow changed to rain during the night continued falling all day. Wind N., steady at 20 miles per hour.
   17th - Rain ended during the past night. Storm still raging on the line of the U. P. R. R. As near as can be determined, the storm has an area of 500 miles East and West, and about 75 miles being the distance over which it has raged in its greatest fury. This evening, the first trains came in since the 12th instant. Passengers report that the suffering of the emigrants must have been terrible, cut off from all supplies of every description, many have starved to death, while others have become blinded by the fury of the storm, and in consequence of this have wandered from the course and frozen to death. The ingress of emigration to this State during the present year, has been unusally [sic] large, and many who had just arrived at the points selected for future homes, had only temporary shelter, consisting principally of tents. These, being composed of such light fabrics, the gale tore to shreds almost instantaneously leaving them (the Emigrants) without shelter of any kind. The snow which has fallen during the prevalence of this fearful storm, has not been of the ordinary large flakes, but fine almost as sand, filling the air so perfectly, as to make it impossible to see the hand, when held out at arm's length. In the village of Grand Island, men were lost in crossing the street, and the bodies found three miles away, on the banks of the Platte River. Houses, that were supposed to be strong enough to withstand the heavy gales that the country is subject to, were lifted up bodily and dashed down with violence to the ground, at which they were completely demolished. The track of the road has been completely covered in 18 feet of snow at numerous places, ever since the storm began. Its equal has never been seen nor felt by the inhabitants of this portion of the country, and the U. P. Officials say it is the most severe that has ever occurred on their road. Large quantities of stock has been lost both at the farms and on the cars. Out of eight car loads of hogs at Laramie, not enough remained after the storm to fill one single car, and the devastation has been proportionally large among the other species of stock on the road. Full reports of this storm will be obtained and forwarded to the Chief Signal Officers.
   Notes from the observations made for the Smithsonian, Post Hospital and other weather observers in Nebraska, with regard to a severe storm that occurred in that State during the period April 13 to 17, 1873.
   Sidney Barracks - Min. Temp. 10o on the 15th, no remarks except snow and rain on the 13th. This record believed to be in error. Probably 10o.
   Ft. McPherson - Min. Temp. 22o on 16th. Rain and snow 13 to 15.
   De Soto - Rain and snow 13th to 16th. Lowest observed 31o on 15th.
   Emerson - Rain and snow 13th to 16th, amount .60, lowest temperature observed 24o.
   Norfolk - Rain and snow 13th to 16th, amount 1.15. Lowest observed temperature 24o.
   Omaha Mission - Rain or snow 13th to 16th, snow melted. Lowest temperature observed 34o.
   Papillion Valley, near Bellevue - Rain and snow intervals, 13th to 16th. Lowest temperature 32o.
   Plymouth (near) - Snow storm on 15th with a strong wind from NW. Snow drifted to the depths of 6 feet in the draws and behind stables and fences. Had no instruments to take temperature or amount of melted snow. The temperature was above freezing or stock would have suffered.
   Red Cloud - Min. temperature 26o. The 13th of this month the first rain (excepting slight sprinkles) fell in six months. It soon turned to snow. The storm continued three days without abating, increasing in severity and attended with very high winds. A number of people perished being out in the storm. Horses and cattle were driven by the storm into the river and perished. Houses being constructed were demolished and dwelling houses partially unroofed.
   Harlan, Republican City, P. O. - Rain and snow 13th to 15th, 6 inches snow. Lowest temperature 27o on 16th. Tornado 4:00 p. m. 13th uprooted trees, blew down houses and blew cattle into river and drowned them.
   West Point - Snow and rain 13th to 16th. (Amount uncertain, probably mostly melted as it fell.)
   After consulting the report of the storm by the chief signal officer of the U. S. army, Mr. George A. Loveland, Meteorologist of the U. S. weather bureau at Lincoln, agrees with my opinion that the foregoing statement of the damage along the Union Pacific railroad is exaggerated. The storm was most destructive in Texas.


First Capital of Red Willow County

   A historical sketch entitled The Beginnings of Red Willow County, printed in volume XIX of the publications of the Historical Society, contains an account of the struggle for the county seat between Indianola and Red Willow. Senator John H. Cordeal supplied valuable material for the history, obtained from the county records. The election for locating the county seat and for choosing the first county officers was held on May 27, 1873. The canvassers found in favor of Indianola, both in respect to the county seat and the candidates for county offices nominated by the partisans of Indianola; whereupon the Red Willow faction brought suit in the court of George W. Colvin, a justice of the peace at Arapahoe, then the county seat at Furnas county, praying for a reversal of the count of the canvassers. On August 1, 1873, the justice found for Red Willow, but the decision was appealed to the district court, whereupon the Red Willow party gave up the county records and yielded the offices to the appellants. Quite recently Sen-

(Concluded on fourth page.)

Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days



Picture or sketch

Picture or sketch

  Memorial Fountain and Seat
in Antelope Park, Lincoln,  
erected by Deborah Avery   

The National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, organized in Washington, October 11, 1890, with a charter membership of 818, now numbers more than 102,000. The dream of the pioneers of this organization has come true in a manner exceeding the hopes of even the most optimistic. Memorial Continental Hall, the home of the society in Washington, is one of the show places of the capital. It is valued at more than one million dollars and is held under charter granted by the United States government the only one of its kind granted to any patriotic society. and is free from taxation by special act of Congress because of the aims and purposes of the society in promoting ideals of public service and patriotism. Memorial Continental Hall is unique because it is a memorial by women to the men and women of the stirring revolutionary times. Many of the most important meetings in Washington for the advancement of historical research, scientific investigation and sociological study are held in Continental Hall.
   The Nebraska Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution

Picture or sketch

First Regent Deborah Avery Chapter, Lincoln
(handwritten - "See C 2285")

had its beginning when Deborah Avery Chapter was organized May 15, 1896, at Lincoln and chartered by the National Society on June 17. The Omaha chapter was formed on June 29th and chartered by the National Society on October let of the same year. Mary M. A. Stevens was the first regent of Deborah Avery Chapter and Mrs. Laura B. Pound, appointed in May, 1806, was the first state regent for Nebraska. Mrs. Frances Avery Haggard of Lincoln was elected state regent in 1898 and was followed by Mrs. Elizabeth Towle of Omaha. In 1901 Mrs. Pound was again elected and served two terms. She called the first state conference in October 1902 which was held in Lincoln at the home of Mrs. Addison S. Tibbets. The main purpose of the conference was to arrange for celebrating the centennial of the Lewis and Clark ex-

pedition. The anniversary of the council of Lewis and Clark with the Oto and Missouri Indians was observed August 3, 1904, and a Nebraska boulder was dedicated at Fort Calhoun with appropriate exercises, participated in by the Sons of the American Revolution and the Nebraska State Historical Society. This was the first historical event commemorated by the Daughters in Nebraska.
   Through the efforts of the Nebraska Daughters $2000 was appropriated by the legislature in 1911 "for the purpose of assisting in the procuring of suitable monuments to mark the Oregon trail in the state of Nebraska."
   This sum was expended under a commission composed of the state regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution, the secretary of the State Historical Society and the state surveyor. The most important places along the Oregon Trail in Nebraska have been marked beginning with its entrance into the state at the southwest corner of Gage county and ending with the monument near Henry, Nebraska, where

Picture or sketch

A State Regent Nebraska Society, Daughters of the American Revolution

the trail crosses the line into Wyoming.
   The Nebraska Society recently held its eighteenth annual conference in Hastings and reports thirty-eight chapters in the state and a membership of 1672. "Any woman, eighteen years of age or more, is eligible to membership provided she be descended from a man or woman who, with unfailing loyalty, rendered material aid to the cause of American Independence; or from a recognized patriot, soldier or sailor or Civil officer, in one of the several Colonies or States, or of the United Colonies or States...." The Daughters do not consider the tracing of ancestry a fad but a family duty in order that the recollections and traditions of the past may be preserved for the historian.
   The Nebraska Society desires to cooperate in every. way with the


Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days

State Historical Society and the 17th annual conference in Hastings in 1920 passed a resolution that the Daughters of the American Revolution in Nebraska encourage the accumulation of data pertaining to the early history of each county and that a department for extensive genealogical research be established and fostered in cooperation with the State Historical Society. One chapter is now at work gathering data for a history of Butler county; another is compiling a record of the names and war service of the soldiers and sailors of Fairmont and vicinity. Deborah Avery Chapter of Lincoln has placed in the historical library as a permanent loan a complete set of the lineage books containing the family record of over 50,000 members of the organization. New volumes are added as rapidly as they are published. This chapter also maintains a valuable collection of Colonial relics in the rooms of the society. In 1916 a volume on Nebraska Pioneer Reminiscences was published by the Daughters.
   During the recent war the Daughters of the American Revolution pledged themselves both as an organization and as individuals "to our country in arms for liberty and humanity." Perhaps the greatest work they are now doing is the movement toward patriotic education; the training of the heterogeneous mass of our people in the duties and privileges of American citizenship. The Nebraska Society has been especially active in the work of Americanization. Deborah Avery chapter conducted classes for better citizenship under a trained director for several years. When final papers are granted giving the rights of citizenship to the foreign born of Lincoln a representative of this chapter is appointed to attend the ceremony and present a silk flag to the new citizen.
   On March 7th Mrs. Elvira Caroline Tewksbury, a daughter of a Colonial here died in Plattsmouth. Her father, James Walker, served in Colonel Chase's regiment in the Revolutionary war and under command of General Francis Smith was one of the militiamen who marched from Cornish, New Hampshire, to reinforce the garrison at Fort Ticonderoga. Mrs. Tewksbury had been a resident of Plattsmouth and Cass county since 1860. For several years she received a pension from the Daughters.


First Capital of Red Willow County
(concluded from second page.)

ator Cordeal discovered the record of the judgment on the appeal at the courthouse at Beaver City, now the county Seat of Furnas county.
   Following is a copy of the instrument:


W. D. Wildman, Leslie M. Lawton,
Royal Duck & Thomas Eaton,
I. J. Starbuck, E. S. Hill, B. F.
Bradbury, William Boyer, W. S.
Fitch, and G. A. Hunter,

   The above entitled action having been duly brought into this court on an appeal taken by the appellants, I. J. Starbuck, E. S. Hill, B. F. Bradbury, William Boyer, W. S. Fitch and G. S. Hunter, from file judgment rendered on the 1st of August, A. D. 1873, by George W. Colvin, a justice of the peace of Furnas county, in the state of Nebraska, in favor of the said W. D. Wildman, Leslie H. Lawton, Royal Buck, Thomas Eaton and L. R. Sitler, and now on this 22 day of June, A. D. 1877, comes the said defendants, I. J. Starbuck, et. al., by their attorney, W. S. Morlan, and it appearing that the said plaintiffs W. D. Wildman et al have not prosecuted their action with diligence against the said defendants, I. J. Starbuck, et al., and after full hearing of said matter and deliberation being had thereon it is now on motion at the said W. S. Morlan adjudged that the said judgment rendered by the said justice as aforesaid be and the same is in all things reversed and that this action be and the same is hereby dismissed at the costs of the said plaintiffs W. D. Wildman et al. It is therefore considered that said defendants I. J. Starbuck et al will recover of said plaintiffs W. D. Wildman et al., the costs in its behalf expended, taxed at $........... and costs.

Read and approved       WILLIAM GASLIN, Jr. Judge.
                       June 22, 1877, Dismissal for
                      want of prosecution.
16 W. D. Wildman,
   J. G. Eaton
   L. K. Sitler and
   Royal Buck,
      vs. SpacerLLLL
   I. J. Starbuck,
   E. S. Hill, B. F. Bradbury,
   William Burger
   W. S. Morlan and W. S. Fitch,
   At an election held on August 2, 1891, a majority of the voters decided to remove the county seat from Indianola to McCook, but a dispute over the vote of Coleman precinct was kept in the courts until 1896, so that, the removal did not occur until that year.
   At the first election in Furnas county, held on April 8, 1873, the

county seat was located at Arapahoe, but at the election held on October 14 of the same year, Beaver City captured the prize and has held it ever since. Just as in the case of Red Willow, there were two small factions in the county, one of Arapahoe, the other of Beaver City.


Passing of the Nebraska Pioneer

   Elisha McGuire, pioneer Nebraskan, 1857, died in Tekamah, March 27th; was a stage driver in 1859- 60; served eleven months in the Civil War, in Company B, Second Regiment Nebraska Cavalry Volunteers.
   Christopher Brinkman, soldier of the Civil War, pioneer Nebraskan, in 1866, died at Newman Grove, March 29th.
   Hans Obermiller, who settled in Grand Island in 1862, died March 29th.
   George Grant, resident of DeWitt since 1858, died March 30th.
   Hans Obermiller, resident of Nebraska since 1862, died at Farwell, about March 31st.
   Elijah Filley, resident of Gage county since 1867, died in Beatrice March 31st. He was a member of the House of Representatives in the legislature of 1881, and a senator in the legislature of 1883; and was active in agricultural organizations.
   Jack Peniska, Ponca Indian scout, veteran at file Civil War, buried March 31st on the Police Indian Reservation. Military services were held by the Niobrara post of the American Legion after which the tribal ceremony was conducted by the Indians.
   Mrs. E. K. Brosius, born at St. James, Nebraska, in 1858, died at Rapid City, South Dakota, March 29th.
   George E. Grant, pioneer of 1858 in Gage county, died March 30th.
   Nathan Albert Wickham, pioneer of Richardson county in 1864, died at Salem, April 1st.
   Preston Keiser, resident of Nebraska since 1865, died in Humboldt, April 2nd.
   Alexander Hamilton Baker, resident of Dakota county for sixty-five years, died April 2nd at his home near Dakota, City; born in Chautauqua county, New York, December 22nd, 1835; settled at Omadi in 1855.
   Jesse Davis, who came by ox team to Nemaha county in 1867, died in Weeping Water, April 3rd.
   Mrs. Eunice Bennett Griffith, who settled on a farm in Cass county in 1867, died in York April 10th.
   Mrs. James Monroe Parker, who came to Nebraska territory with her husband by prairie schooner in 1863, died in Omaha April 11th.
   Ellen Beardshear, resident of Dakota county since 1858, died at Dakota City April 13th.
   Mrs. Elizabeth Spence, who came to Nebraska in 1866, died at her home in Glendale precinct April 13th.
   Victor William Miller, resident or LaPlatte since 1854, died April 14th.
   Philip Bindernagle who come to Nebraska City by ox team in 1866 died on April 15th at Beatrice where he had lived since 1877.
   William Henderson Moore, resident or Otoe county in 1854, died in Plattsmouth, April 15th. At the age of fourteen he was hired by Majors, Russell and Waddell as a bullwhacker and made some thirty trips across the plains.
   Sidney Herbert Stebbins, a resident of Pawnee City since 1860, died April 16th.
   Mrs. Gratzie Stuhr, who settled in Douglas county in the fifties, died in Omaha, April 18th.
   Mrs. L. J. Griffith, pioneer of Cass county in 1867, died April 19th.
   Auguste Quante, pioneer and freighter, resident of Nebraska since 1866, died in Brock, April 23rd.
   Thomas Newton Tolle, resilient of Nebraska City since 1858, died April 23rd.
   William Granville Cunningham, a freighter across the plains in the early sixties, died at Blair April 24th; had been a resident of Nebraska since 1860.
   Francis X. Dellone, noted Catholic pioneer of Omaha since 1857, died April 26th.
   Timothy Murphy, Dakota county pioneer since 1867, died in Dakota City April 26th.
   Mary Dolan, who homesteaded near Wahoo in 1858, died in Plainview on April 30th.
   Thomas C. Kimsey, resident of Nemaha county in 1857, died at Benkelman on April 30th.
   Dora Sophia Krantz, a resident of Nebraska since 1866, died May 1st at her home near Sterling.
   Zenas Stevens, who freighted with ox teams from Omaha to Salt Lake City and Denver, a resident of Omaha since 1860, died May 3rd.
   Mrs. John W. Hazelgrove, who came to Nebraska in 1860, died in South Sioux City May 3rd.
   Mrs. Burton H. Shoemaker, resident of Nebraska since 1863, died in Lincoln on May 4th.
   Gerrit H. Wehmer, who came with his parents to Nebraska in 1862, died near Sterling on May 10th.
   Duane Brown, who resided in Washington county from 1866 to 1918, died at the home of his daughter in Bloomfield on May 13th.
   Henry Martyn Kemp died in Schuyler, Nebraska, May 13th; born in England, October 10, 1823; came from Michigan to Nebraska in a prairie schooner in 1858.
   Michael Johnson, a highly respected pioneer citizen of Dodge county since 1859, died May 16th.
   Jonathan Martin, born near Fall River. Mass., July 21, 1820, died at Martinsburg, Nebraska, on May 18th; came to Nebraska in 1867; was the founder of the town of Martinsburg.
   Mrs. Charles J. Karbach, a resident of Omaha for sixty-three years, died May 19th; Mr. Karbach came to Omaha in 1855 and had a large part in the development of that city.

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