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Published Monthly by the Nebraska State Historical Society
Associate Editors
The Staffs of the Nebraska State Historical Society and
Legislative Reference Bureau
Subscription $2.00 Per Year
q All sustaining members of the Nebraska State Historical
    Society receive Nebraska History without further payment.
Entered as second class mail matter, under act of July 16,
1894, at Lincoln, Nebraska, April 2, 1918.             




   A recent publication at the Iowa State Historical Society gives the history of the Cardiff Giant, a stone figure manufactured at Fort Dodge, Iowa, and "discovered" at Cardiff, New York, in 1869. Thousands of dollars were made by the exhibition of the stone figure before the hoax was exposed. Which reminds the editor of the "Petrified Man" found buried in the badlands about three miles from Chadron in the nineties. The story of this famous frontier scout will be given in it future issue of this magazine with exact facts and verified dates.

   Delay has occurred in the issue of this magazine. For this there is sincere regret. It should promptly appear as dated. Sometimes delay arises for need of time to verify and correct manuscript. With much current correspondence and limited office force it is difficult to meet all the calls. Our remorse is mitigated only a little by noting that some of the strong state historical societies are farther behind in their periodical issues than Nebraska. Most of the copy for the next two issues of this magazine is now in hand and they may be looked for at an early date.

    Two articles in one issue of this quarterly by Mr. Bengston, one of our recent research members, is more than is usually accorded. Both articles have been in type for some time and the change in form of the magazine seems to require publication now. And then both are good stories.

    "American Catholics in the War" is the title of a new historical volume of 470 pages from the Catholic War Council; edited by Michael Williams, published by MacMillan. The book says it is but the beginning of the record. It will be found of great reference value to students of religious movements as well as wars. A few direct quotations illustrate this point:
   "There were some 20,000 Catholics among approximately 2,700,000 inhabitants of the thirteen colonies in 1776."
   "It is estimated that in the United States in 1860 there were about 4,500,000 Catholics out of a total population of 31,500,000."
   "In the United States religious census of 1916 the total number of church members in the country is set down at 41,926,854, the number of Catholics as approximately 16,000,000."
   "The value of Catholic Church property to given at $374,206,895, which far exceeds that of any other church."
   "The Catholic citizens of America furnished for the World War more than 30 per cent of the enlisted fighting men in our army and navy."
   "The department of historical records at the National Catholic War Council has on file the names of more than 17,000 Catholic soldiers, sailors and marines who were killed or died under the colors, with more than 2000 parishes still to be heard from. The total number of American dead as given by the war department is 126,656."

    Upon the editor's desk lie two volumes of Records of the World War, fresh from the office at the adjutant general at Washington. These are Field Orders of the Fifth Division and of the Second Army Corps with maps and diagrams. They are thin volumes of less than 200 pages each, but packed with thrilling interest. Their contents cover the period overseas from May 1918 to February 1919. Most of the orders are

marked "Secret." Directions for advance, for signals, for liason with other commands are brief, but full. From these printed volumes of original records historians of the future will obtain their most important material. Complete sets of these volumes in the Historical Society library will be available for ex-service men and others interested.

    The Winnebago Indian tribe lives half (nearly) in Nebraska - the other half in Wisconsin. The Nebraska half is the subject of a 60-page monograph written by Dr. Margaret W. Koenig and published by this Society in August. Passing from the old life to the new is it critical period in the life of any primitive people. The survival of the Winnebago, like that of the Pawnee is still in doubt. Dr. Koenig's contribution has been highly commended in a number of letters received by the Society.

    Index of continuous growth of interest in history of the State is the flood of letters coming to the editor's desk. Every day brings numerous inquiries in regard to historical sites, events and persons in Nebraska. Many of these letters call for extended research to answer.

    The Daughters of the American Revolution in Nebraska are making a concentrated effort to gather pioneer reminiscences and county data to be placed with the Nebraska Historical Society for reference. Already some valuable miscellaneous manuscripts have been secured.

    All of the records of the Nebraska State Council of Defense and the papers of the Womens' Council of Defense are in the keeping of the State Historical Society. Photographs and other records showing Nebraska's part in the World War are constantly being added to our collections.

    The Historical Society has recently acquired many of the private papers of Dr. L. J. Abbott who was a member of the House of Representatives in 1867. These papers are full of interesting material relating to the history of Nebraska.

    The next issue of Nebraska History will appear in its new magazine form - convenient for reading and for binding into volumes of the same size as bound volumes issued by the Society.

   Recently the superintendent received a letter from Thomas Hughes, an attorney at Mankato, Minnesota, asking for a copy of a photograph taken in New York City in 1866 showing the principal chiefs of the Winnebago tribe and especially Chiefs Decorah and Little Hill.
   This photograph was taken at the instance of Robert W. Furnas, when he was Indian agent for the Omaha and Winnebago. He deposited a copy with the Historical Society. It is one of the most valuable pictures of that period, clear and distinct after all the years and showing Colonel Furnas surrounded by the group of chiefs who accompanied him on his trip east.
   Mr. Hughes' letter gives a glimpse of what is being done at the old home of the Winnebago to preserve their tradition and memory. The Winnebago were the first Indians seen by the editor as a very small boy in Houston county, Minnesota. Mr. Hughes writes:
   "The Winnebagos, as you know, had their reservation here in Blue Earth County, from 1855 to 1863, and our local society, as well as our state society, is much interested in their history. During this past winter, I have gathered a large quantity of material pertaining to the tribe. I have several dozen letters from Oliver LaMere and Dr. N. W. Jipson of Chicago, who is writing a history of the Winnebago tribe. Our local society have had a map made of the old reservation here, which covered a strip of land twenty-five miles long and thirteen miles wide and we have been relocating the sites of the various villages, which the Winnebagos occupied while here, with the names of the chiefs of each. We have also gathered a few pictures and quite a good deal of material pertaining to the history of the tribe while here and obtained biographies, as far as possible, of the most prominent chiefs. I have found the study very interesting.
   Glad to know that your early home was here in southern Minnesota, and also of your interest in Winnebago history. Of course I have also been greatly interested in the Sioux, who were the aborigines, as you know, of the southern half of our state."


Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days

The Adventure of Walker's Ranch
B. E. Bengston, Funk, Nebraska.

   About seven miles south of Axtell, Kearney county, Nebraska, are the tumble-down buildings of Walker's Ranch. The decaying structures are all that is left of one of the interesting landmarks of the early days. The walls are gray from exposure to sun and rain and probably have never known paint in any form. For many years the ranch has undergone but slight changes and if any of the old timers who once frequented the place should again chance thither he would no doubt find much that would remind him of olden times. There is the same house, a low frame affair, the same stable and various other buildings with a wide street between them running nearly northeast and southwest.
   David B. Ball, the present owner, has in one way or another been connected with the place ever since the beginning. In 1870 Ball held a contract to carry the U. S. mail from an adobe town on the Platte River to the Republican Valley. Carrying the mail about a year he surrendered his contract and it was let to Charles Walker who put up buildings and established a station near the west side of Kearney county. This location has ever since been known as Walker's Ranch.
   In the beginning of the year 1873 Walker became ill and went to Omaha for treatment. Instead of recovering his health he became worse and died in the latter part of February. A few days afterwards when it became known that Walker had died a man by the name at Smith with a companion nicknamed Polly arrived at the ranch. They put up a building and established themselves claiming they had bought Walker's relinquishment. This they had not done. They had come with the avowed purpose of "jumping the claim" and stealing the property.
   How two such statements in sense diametrically opposed to each other could be reconciled. we at this time cannot comprehend. But this is beside the story: the standard of conduct in the "wild and wooly West" was different from that in the more conventional east. With Indians still at large on the prairies, the occasional visit of the James gang of train and bank robbers, the individual road agent, the cattle rustler and the horse thief this portion at the prairie was still within the bounds of the wild west. To this the old graveyard south of Lowell, where those who "died with their boots on" in Valley City on the Platte, is sufficient evidence.
   After Smith's advent the place became the rendezvous of border ruffians and toughs of all degrees. Gambling, the curse of the world, was the pastime most indulged in, and one night during a drunken brawl pandemonium turned itself loose; bowie knives and revolvers suddenly flashed over the card table. Shots rang out, deafening within the four walls, and curses filled the air. When the disturbance ended and the noise had quieted down it was found that Polly lay on the floor dead, struck down, by a bullet from Smith's gun, Fagan and others had received wounds from pistol bullets or knives, but none other was killed.
   The next day a number of freighters who had stopped at the ranch drove into Lowell, the county seat at Kearney county, with the news of the killing. The deputy sheriff, on getting the particulars of the crime, organized a posse for the purpose at bringing the murderers in. It was evident that he expected to get a fight out of it as he took with him two surgeons and four or five other men. There was deep snow on the ground, the air was crisp and the wagon wheels creaked in their tracks as the posse drove out and disappeared over the sandhills to the south. They. were "armed to the teeth' and no one in Lowell doubted their ability to bring their man in dead or alive.
   Shortly, after their departure David B. Ball arrived in town. He had recently been appointed deputy U. S. marshal, and as soon as he had been enlightened in the matter he swore out a warrant for the arrest of Smith and his partner at the card table for interfering with the U. S. mail. Armed with this and accompanied by only one man, T. S. Butler of Riverton, he took the trail after the deputy sheriff. Coming to a point about eight miles northeast of the ranch he met the posse. They were coming back for reenforcements not being willing to attack the place they had been told was now prepared for a siege. Furthermore, Smith had sent word that he would not be taken alive.
   Ball urged the posse to return, saying that their man would certainly make an attempt to escape in the night. No amount of urging however was at any avail and the sheriff said, "Ball, I'll turn this job over to you." "I'll take it," instantly replied Ball, "and I appoint you and your posse my deputies.''
   "Oh, that will never do," was the reply. "If we go it will be as a separate posse."
   "Very well," said Ball, "but I need your help and if you come with me I'll guarantee to bring you through with whole skins." He then made known his plan and when they heard it they declared it a capital plan and that it would succeed.

   When the team started again they both traveled in the same direction - southwest towards Walker's Ranch.
   Ball's plan was to get in from the south ahead of the others. To do this he left the trail and struck-out across the prairie in a westerly direction, leaving the others to follow about a half mile behind. A few miles to the west he struck the "Franklin Trail" which crossed the mail trail in a hollow south of Walker's Ranch. Here Ball turned and drove into the station from the south.
   As soon as he pulled up he jumped out in an unconcerned manner and began unhitching his horses as if he intended to stay over night. Smith saw him and sent his partner out to reconnoiter. Ball engaged him in conversation, inquiring about everyday matters, such as feed for his horses, accommodation for himself and companion, etc.
   Smith knew Ball well. He also knew that he was deputy U. S. marshal, but he did not expect trouble from him. His crime was murder and he was looking for the county authorities.
   Smith's partner, evidently satisfied that they had nothing to fear from Ball and his man, went into the house and in a short time came back accompanied by Smith. Meanwhile, Ball had numerous errands out to his buggy, getting halters, straps, robes and other articles. But this was merely subterfuge. He was carefully noting how near the deputy sheriff and his posse were. They had left the trail a short distance south of the ranch and being behind the buildings, Smith had not seen them. As they drove in between two of the houses of the ranch, Smith turned in surprise and Ball, who had edged up to him suddenly, grasped his arms from behind and held on for "dear life," as he afterwards said. Butler, at the same time, covered Smith's companion with his rifle.
   The sheriff's posse on seeing Butler with his gun up sprang forward to his side and also leveled their guns at the trembling follow, who was too much surprised and frightened to move out of the spot.
   Ball on the other hand was having a desperate struggle with his man. "Butler! Butler!" he called. "Come here and put the handcuffs on this follow. I can't hold him much longer!" To put handcuffs on that desperate struggling man who knew it meant his life to be captured was no easy matter. The handcuffs were in the inside pocket of Ball's coat and it was a hard matter to get them out, so close and hard did he hold his prisoner.
   After a while when the three men had pranced around in the snow had gotten their clothing more or less torn the handcuffs were produced and clasped on the kicking, snarling and biting man who was now more a wild beast than a human being.
   The sun was nearly down and after having had supper, Ball detailed a guard to stay at the ranch for the purpose of looking after the interest of Walker's widow. He then started with his prisoners for Lowell, where, arriving late at night, he had them locked up.
   The facilities for keeping prisoners not being the best at that time, in Lowell, Smith broke jail and has never been heard at since. The other man was brought to trial, but the case against him not being very good he got off with a sentence of three years in the penitentiary.

A Small Historic Spot in Hamilton County
B. E. Bengston, Funk, Nebraska

   For a small spot, sections 9, 10, 15 and 16 in Bluffs precinct, Hamilton county, may well, as historic ground, claim a brief notice. The descent of the table-land and over the bluffs into the Platte River valley is here short and the river is only a little more than a mile away.
   This side of the valley consists of a bench of fertile land terminating at an ancient river bank about eight feet high, and the bottom which is flat and sandy, during seasons of heavy rainfall or when the river is high contains numerous ponds and bayous of stagnant water.
   From the highest bluff, which is about 125 foot above the river, the view is grand. A wide expanse of level land, reaching the bluffs on the other side stretches out to the east and west until it meets the horizon. In this direction lies the river. Like a broad band of silver it divides and subdivides and again unites as it embraces the numerous islands that lie as gems in its course. Beyond the river a scintillating gleam of reflected sunlight from a window reveals the location of a farmhouse. A railroad train is moving like at snake across the plain. It is the Union Pacific express, and the distance makes its movements seem slow. Even this catches the sun's rays and flashes of light are tremblingly shot from its sides as it rocks on the rails. On this side of the river an automobile darts out from beyond a grove, swings around a hill and disappears as quickly as it came. A farmer is seen driving a five-horse team drawing a gang-plow, and the song of a mowing machine is heard on the hillside. All this betokens life and action, bustle and toil. But it is a life covering death; and action that supersedes inaction; the past sleeps here; traces of a time that has sped and a race that has gone, while now only faintly discernible, can still be found. Following the ancient river bank across sections 8 and 10 are the tracks of the freighting trail which is here about one hundred

Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days


yards wide. Side by side, they lie bearing mute witness of the perils of the passage. An Indian village was located here and in fear of ambush or savage treachery the wagons of each train were driven abreast instead of in single file as otherwise was the custom. The site of the Indian village is in the angle formed by the section line on the east side of section 9, and the ancient river bank.
   In 1877 the writer of this article being attracted to the spot by a patch of wild plum trees saw this site for the first time. A number of earthen rings irregularly distributed indicated the location of the tepees. These rings were open on one side and this opening was probably where the door was located. The rings varied in size from eight feet to about sixteen feet across and the basin-like depressions within them were one foot deep. A careful search in all of the rings disclosed nothing more than the badly rusted blade of a butcher knife and a small potsherd. The handle of the knife was gone and the cutting edge dented almost like the toothed edge of a saw. In spite of the ruined condition of the relic it could plainly be seen that it was not of savage design. It had no doubt been acquired through barter with the white man. Articles of savage workmanship were found a mile to the southeast on the table-land, west of a deep ravine and near the south side of the northeast quarter of section 16, several pieces of brown flint were picked up. The fact that they had been chipped at the edges proved them to be implements of some sort. One of these is the point of a spearhead. It has one of its edges chipped to a short bevel indicating that it is of Pawnee manufacture. Another spear point found is simply a rude wedge of stone. This also has a short bevel chipped on one of its edges. A queer little piece which fits in the crook of the finger proves to be a skinning knife. A larger piece which is curved and fits in the grip of the hand is a scraper used in tanning the hides of the animals which the Indians killed. This location is designated for convenience as "The Place of Flints." An arrowhead of white flint and which had no short bevel was discovered in the bottom of the long ravine on the west side of this section, proving that other Indians besides Pawnees, had hunted here in ancient times.
   The "Place of Flints" showed no signs of having been the location of a village, although it may have been a summer camp. The fact that a prairie fire had recently passed over the ground was responsible for the finding of the flints. After the wind had swept away the soot and ashes the stones could plainly be seen, especially as the soil is naturally free of pebbles or stone chips.
   On the southwest quarter of this section were a number of grass rings of the same size and arrangement as the earthen rings of the Indian village. They were on the east side of the ravine which here comes to an end in a short fork. Attention was drawn to these rings by the bluestem grass, of which they consisted, being longer than the grass around them. Noticed during several successive summers, these rings always presented the same appearance. Did they mark the spot where some ancient wigwams had rotted? We do not know. They were destroyed when the ox-team and the breaking plow found them.
   On a knoll in the bluffs at the southwest corner of section 10 is an old Indian burying ground. Before the country was settled and while the bluffs were still unfenced I visited this place. It presented a gruesome appearance; two skulls, sections of vertebrae, and ribs of human beings were scattered promiscuously about. Coyotes had dug into the shallow graves and dragged the bones forth. On picking up one of the crania it was found to have belonged to a comparatively young person. The "wisdom teeth" were still in the embryo stage and had never appeared above the gums. The other skull was that of an older person, as nearly all of the teeth were gone and, those that were left were badly worn. The zygomatic arch was larger on the side where the teeth were left, showing that the buffalo meat menu of the Indian had long been chewed on that side of the jaw alone. A number of small ribs and bones of a small hand proved to be the remains of a papoose.
   About a quarter of a mile west of this place was another burying, ground. This also was located on a high place overlooking the valley. Here were but two graves. They appeared to be older than the others and had not been disturbed by wild animals. The mounds were low and on them were found small beads, white and blue, scraps of leather and a medicine pouch. The latter appeared to have been made of rawhide and in size would have held a watch. Why were these graves separate? The earliest settlers did not even know of their existence until told about their discovery.
   In 1919 as I was visiting the places where I spent my youth I also passed the "Old Indian Graveyard.'' On looking up from the road in the ravine on which I was driven I expected still to see skulls and bones gleam on top of the bluffs when, lo, there was a farmstead built on the "Old Indian Burying Ground." I turned around to look for the other graveyard and was not a little horrified to find that another

farmplace had been built up where that was located. On coming to the site of the Old Indian village I found a cornfield there and of the plum grove only one solitary tree was left. This was a small one and stood under the wire in the line fence where the cultivator could not reach it.
   That this territory had been the feeding ground of the buffalo the countless number of skeletons of these bovines scattered over the prairie in the early days is ample proof. After a prairie fire they could be seen everywhere - a crumbling skull here and a pile of broken bones there. But very few good horns were to be found on these skulls in the late seventies and those that could be found were checked from exposure to fire, and weather and in most instances were peeling and parting in the laminations. Another proof of the buffalo was the path which they had used in going to water. It crossed section 16 near its west side. The buffalo path was a single trail about 8 inches deep and must have been traveled by great numbers of animals before it had been worn to such depth. The village of Hordville is now located where this path crossed section 21. Main street passes diagonally over the ancient trail.

Letter from Captain Lute North

   Captain Lute M. North of Columbus, is one of the few survivors of the old battle days on the Nebraska plains. He is one of the still fewer pioneers having close acquaintance with that most picturesque and interesting figure in early Nebraska history - the Pawnee Indian. Quietly living in his pleasant home at Columbus, Captain North reads with eager interest everything relating to that early period so familiar to him. A recent correspondence with him refers to a matter of great importance in western history - what is called the Great Sioux Treaty of 1868:

Columbus, Nebr., June 30th, 1921.

Dear Mr. Sheldon:
   I am enclosing a clipping from our paper the Daily News and would like to ask you what treaty was made with the Indians in April, 1867, and where.
   I was camped at the end of the track (the U. P.) which was about where Ogallala is now the latter part of April or the fore part of May with my company of Pawnee Scouts. At that time Spotted Tail with his band (the Brute Sioux) was camped on the North Platte a few miles above where North Platte city now stands, but I don't remember of any treaty with them at that time. But later in the summer, perhaps in August or September there was a commission appointed composed of Generals Sherman, Harney, Terry, Augur and Sanborn, N. B. Taylor, commissioner of Indian affairs, Colonel Tappan and Senator Henderson. The chiefs at the council wore Spotted Tail, Man-afraid-of-his-horses, Man-that-walks- under-the-ground, Pawnee Killer. Standing Elk, Spotted Bear, Black Deer, Turkey Leg, Cut Nose, Whistler, Big Mouth, Cold Feet, Cold Face, Crazy Lodge, and others. My brother, Major Frank North, was at the council and met Turkey Leg, the Cheyenne Chief and made arrangements with him to exchange a Cheyenne woman and boy that we had taken prisoners in a fight at Plum Creek a short time before. Turkey Leg had six prisoners, three girls, two boys and a baby. The exchange was made in the R. R. eating house. I don't remember, but my impression is that there was no treaty signed at this time but that they had another meeting later. I have gotten off what I wanted to ask you, that is, where was the treaty signed that the clipping refers to and when.
SpacerYours truly,
(Extract from reply.)
   The Sioux Indian treaty referred to is dated April 29, 1868, at Fort Laramie, in government documents.
   The report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for the year 1867, an page 269, contains the following:
   "In February, 1867, the President appointed a commission, composed of two officers of the army and four civilians, to visit the Indian country in the vicinity of Fort Phil Kearny, and learn all the facts relative to the massacre of Colonel Fetterman and his command, and to do all in their power to separate the friendly from the hostile Indians.
   On the 19th of April they met a large delegation headed by Spotted Tail and Swift Bear. These Indians had faithfully adhered to the stipulations of the treaty signed by the chiefs at Laramie in July, 1866, and had not molested or disturbed whites. After a satisfactory council, they distributed among them $4,000 worth of presents, and assigned to them as a hunting ground the country lying between the Platte and the Smoky Hill river.
   On the 12th of June, 1867 two of the commissioners, General Sanborn and Colonel Beauvais held a council at Laramie with chiefs and headmen claiming to represent 200 lodges of the hostile Ogallala and Brule Sioux among whom was The Man Afraid of his Horses (a brave and influential chief.) They told the commissioners that the northern Indians had abandoned war and that they would come in and join the friendly Indians under Spotted Tail."

   Photo stat copies of the weather reports taken at Fort Atkinson in 1819-1820 and much other material relative to the history of the fort have recently been added to our collection.


Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days

Old Records of the First State Wide Temperance Organization Recently Acquired by the Historical Society,--- What They Show of the Beginnings of the Dry Movement.

   Within the past few weeks the Historical Society has come in possession of nearly complete files of the printed reports of the grand lodge of Good Templars in Nebraska.
   The adoption of the state prohibition amendment in 1916 and the subsequent ratification by Nebraska as the thirty-sixth state of the prohibition amendment to the federal constitution ends an era of fierce controversy over the use of alcoholic liquor. The history of that controversy in Nebraska is yet to be written. It is full of dramatic incident and human interest stories.
   The printed records of the grand lodge of Good Templars just received by the Historical society library are a most valuable and important addition to our knowledge of the temperance struggle. From them the following items are taken:
   The Good Templars were organized in Nebraska July 9, 1867, at Nebraska City. Seventeen local lodges were reported in the state. Among the well known persons in Nebraska history present were: Rev. J. M. Taggart, A. F. Harvey of Nebraska City; W. A. Presson, S. S. Alley and Wesley Dundas.
   The second annual meeting was held at Omaha June 17 1868, at the hall of the Hope of the West Lodge - a truly significant name for an Omaha organization. From the official reports it appears there were then 1647 members in good standing and thirty-one local lodges.
   The chief templar's address announces that the Good Templars is not a political organization. It is the duty of its members to use all their influence in all parties for the election of sober and temperance men to office.
   A year later the grand lodge met in Lincoln. The annual address of its head contains this new note:
   "The subject of political action demands our attention. We talk and discuss temperance, should we be afraid to vote as we talk? We must make our power felt in political circles, for the politicians will listen to logic of votes. It is our duty, as temperance men, to attend the caucuses and conventions of our respective parties, and oppose every nominee who bows to the whisky power,"
   The name of John M. Thurston, afterward United States senator for Nebraska and still later attorney at Washington for the liquor dealers' association, appears as one of the delegates at this meeting. A year later, at the grand lodge held in 1871, Mr. Thurston was elected grand worthy chief templar, and presented a memorial to the Nebraska con-

stitutional convention which met that year, reading as follows:
   Whereas, The use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage can be of no possible benefit to mankind and has already inflicted untold misery, degradation and crime; and
   Whereas, The sale of said liquors as a beverage is detrimental to the efficient civil government of the people of the state of Nebraska; and
   Whereas, The prohibition of the sale of said liquors as a beverage is a measure of true political economy; and
   Whereas, A large portion of the citizens of the state of Nebraska desire to have the sale of said liquors prohibited in their respective portions of said state;
   Now, therefore, We most earnestly petition your honorable body to incorporate in the new constitution of the state of Nebraska a section providing that a majority of the legal voters in each county shall have the power, by vote, within their respective counties, to restrict and prohibit the sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage.
   The constitutional convention of 1871, did submit the question of prohibition to the voters as a separate proposal, and it was voted down by 6,071 for and 10,160 against.
   At the grand lodge meeting in 1875 the reports allowed one hundred twenty local lodges and four thousand members in the state. The grand lodge voted that prohibition was the only proper legislation and the temperance people should give their votes and influence only for temperance candidates. There was a juvenile templars' organization with, over six hundred members and seventeen local temples.
   At the annual meeting in 1878 the question of the third party to push the cause of prohibition was discussed, disclosing considerable difference of opinion on the subject. Already radical members wished to go forward more rapidly, while conservative ones were content with the old methods. The remarkable lecture work of John B. Finch had increased the membership to more than six thousand and nearly two hundred local lodges. By 1881 the membership had increased to over seven thousand. The Slocumb law was enacted by the Nebraska legislature of 1881 and supported by the Good Templars. John B. Finch, then head of the grand lodge in the state, reported that temperance people had supported the Slocumb law because It contained more prohibitory features than the old law.
   Among the names familiar in Nebraska history which appear in these printed reports are those of R. B. Windham, J. H. Culver, Mrs. Ada VanPelt, F. G. Keens, B. D. Slaughter, Miss Anna Saunders.


Passing of the Nebraska Pioneer
(These items are for the year 1920.)

   Benjamin Seward Mothersead died at Talmage July 3rd; settled upon a farm near Nebraska City in 1865.
   Mrs. Jane Maria Artist Baker died July 4th at DeWitt: came with her parents to Nebraska in 1863; married Frank P. Baker in Beatrice, Aug. 21, 1864.
   Jonathan Wise, pioneer resident of Plattsmouth, died July 10th; elected in 1867 to the office of county clerk of Cass county, serving two years; was a prominent Mason.
   Mrs. Anna Schlecht, pioneer of Cuming county died July 11th at the home of her son near West Point; came with her husband to Nebraska in 1866 and cheerfully endured the discomforts of life on the frontier.
   Augustus T. Haas, a continuous resident of Dakota City for sixty-two years, died August 27th; born in Hanover, Germany, May 5th, 1835; came to America in 1848, to Dakota City on June 26th 1858; was identified with every movement for the advancement of community interests.
   Dr. George L. Miller, pioneer physician, resident of Omaha for sixty-five years, died August 30th; born in Booneville, N. Y. Aug. 18th, 1830; graduated in 1852 from the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons and practiced for two years in Syracuse. Dr. Miller settled in Omaha on Oct. 19, 1854 and began the practice of medicine, but after two years gave it up for wider activities. Dr. Miller founded the Omaha Daily Herald which he published for twenty years and which later became the World-Herald. The late J. Sterling Morton in speaking of Dr. Miller said, "No other man, either by the power of money, or by the power of brawn, or by the strength of brain, did as much to make Omaha city as this one man accomplished."
   Eugene Hilton, pioneer Central City, died Sept. 8th in 1859 came with his father to the Lone Tree Station, located on the Platte river three miles southwest of what is now Central City; in his sixteenth year was a mail carrier for the stage company between Wood River and Eagle Island.
   J. J. McCafferty, pioneer O'Neill died Sept. 21st; was a writer in the cause of Irish freedom and known as a scholar before coming to this country.
   John K. Hazzard, pioneer of Omaha in the early fifties, died Sept. 27.


    Mrs. Mike Brorkins, born in Nebraska City in 1863, died near Talmage, Sept. 24th.
   Mrs. Elma E. Dickerson Dodge, resident of Nebraska since 1859, died in Fremont, Oct. 10th.
   Mrs. Mary Gilmore, pioneer of 1866, died in Milford. Oct. 27th.
   Patrick J. Langdon, resident of Nebraska since 1856, enterprising and influential citizen of Gretna, died Oct. 22nd.
   Frederick E. Allen, resident of Nemaha county for sixty-one years, died Oct. 23rd; was a successful farmer, banker and influential citizen until his death.
   Mrs. Mary George Miller, wife of T. H. Miller, Crete, died Nov. 16th; came with her parents to Crete in 1867.
   Mrs. Helen M. Bisbee, resident of Nebraska since 1866, died Nov. 12th; came with her husband, the late Rev. Charles G. Bisbee, to Fontanelle and took charge of the Congregational Church there. Mr. and Mrs. Bisbee were the first teachers in the Fontanelle academy which was the forerunner of Doane college, Crete.
   Robert McCray, resident of Columbus since 1867, died Nov. 14th.
   Martha Fischer, resident of Nebraska since 1855, died near Hooper Nov. 26th.
   William W. Lawrence, resident of Nemaha county since 1863, died in Peru May 28th.
   Ephriam Oliver, resident of Shelton since 1860, died June 10th; was a farmer and stock raiser; received his education in the public schools of Buffalo county.
   Mrs. Sarah E. Wilhite who came with her father, Jesse Crook, to Richardson county in April 1866, died June 20th; first married Augustus Schoenheit, a lawyer of Falls City; in 1898 she married Judge James R. Wilhite, a pioneer of Richardson county.

   Among the interesting adventures of historical society work is the discovery of new truth - or of the records thereof. It may be a find of flints cached away in some ancient Indian village site. It may be some weather stained diary of an explorer or pioneer. It may be some unexpected printed document giving exact information long sought. A set of documents with maps and detailed information upon events in the fateful frontier years 1864-76 is among the recent valued additions in our library. Those include original material on Fort Kearny, Fort Phil Kearny, events on the Platte river, the extinction of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe title in western Nebraska, Sitting Bull's explanation of the coming of the Indian Messiah.

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