can river was patrolled, and also the country west to the Colorado line. In his report for 1867, General Augur, commander of the department of the Platte, speaks of the excellent service of Major Frank North's four companies of Pawnee scouts. This contradicts Eugene Ware's disparaging estimate of them in his history of the Indian war of 1864. General Sherman said that there was little actual danger of Indians in 1867 but a great deal of apprehension of it. General Augur reported that depredations were begun in October, 1867, extending from Plum creek to Fort Fetterman -- 400 miles -- and he had placed troops at every railroad station between Fort Kearny and Cheyenne. During 1868 scouting parties and expeditions were sent out in various directions from Fort McPherson, their usual object being to recover stock stolen by Indians. During 1869 troops were kept busy protecting the Union Pacific railroad, from Fort Kearny westward, and other lines and settlements in the western part of the state. Red Cloud had quieted the Indians on his return from Washington in 1870. On the 4th of April General Augur dispatched Company C, Second cavalry, from Omaha barracks to the southwestern part of the state where there had been depredations for the last five years.
   About fifty Indians appeared May 15th; but at sight of the soldiers they quickly dispersed. There were also unimportant excursions in the northwest part of the state. General Augur reported that not a white man had been killed by Indians in the department of the Platte during 1871, and Fort Kearny and Fort Sedgwick were abandoned that year, "being no longer necessary." A camp of one company of cavalry and one of infantry was established in April on the Loup river, thirty miles northwest of Grand Island, for the protection of settlers; and another, with a like force, on the Republican, directly south of Fort Kearny. The Indians were receding before white pressure. These Nebraska outposts were placed sixty miles farther west than those of the year before. Companies of cavalry were still maintained at Plum Creek and O'Fallon's, on the Union Pacific railroad, for the protection ofthe road and "neighboring interests." In 1872 Fort McPherson was the headquarters of the Third regiment, one company of which was at Red Willow camp and two at Sidney barracks. These were the only posts in Nebraska, except Omaha barracks, headquarters of the Ninth regiment. There were no general hostilities in the division of the Missouri this year. Conditions were about the same in 1873. The actual hostilities were in Dakota. They were directly incited by the encroachment of the Northern Pacific railroad. The military force in the department of the Platte -- Iowa, Nebraska, Utah, Wyoming -- comprised 1,502 cavalry and 2,704 infantry. In the winter of 1874 six companies of cavalry and eight of infantry were sent to suppress threatened troubles at the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies in Nebraska. Otherwise conditions were similar to those of the late preceding years. Scouting parties were detailed to protect surveying parties. Brigadier General Crook, the famous Indian fighter, was commander of the department of the Platte in 1875, succeeding General Ord. Fort Hartsuff was established September 5, 1875, on the north side of the Loup river, in Valley county; the sub-station of Fort McPherson at North Platte was created an independent post, March 6th; and during the year the few buildings left at Fort Kearny were removed to North Platte and Sidney barracks. In May there was an unimportant disturbance at the Winnebago agency which was quieted by a small military detail. Between the 24th of November and the 14th of May eighteen officers of the department were engaged in enrolling victims of the grasshopper invasion of 1874 in Nebraska and Iowa. On the 23d of April, Lieutenant Austin Henley, with forty men of the Sixth cavalry, destroyed nearly all of a party of seventy Cheyenne desperadoes who attempted to make their way across the Platte to the Sioux country. On the 23d of June, 1875, a treaty was negotiated and signed at the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies each relinquished the troublesome privilege, reserved in the treaty of 1868, of hunting in that part of Nebraska north of the Platte river and



on the Repubican river. In that year the total reported number of Sioux was 42,778; and they were grouped about sixteen agencies. Sitting Bull's rebel band of 3,000 were still out, and a great campaign against them, begun in the early part of 1876, led to the destruction of General Custer's command, at the battle of the Little Bighorn river, June 25th of that year. A vigorous campaign against Sitting Bull's force, under General Sheridan's general supervision and commanded by General Miles,. drove it across the British boundary. On the 24th of October, a detachment of the Fourth cavalry, of the Fort Robinson garrison, captured and disarmed a troublesome band of Indians at the Red Cloud agency, led or incited by Red Cloud himself. In the spring of 1877, Colonel Miles surprised and cut to pieces Lame Deer's band, and killed the chief. Consequently, September 10th, the remnant of the band, 224 in number, surrendered at Camp Sheridan. General Sheridan, reporting the incident, declared: "The Sioux war is now over." Crazy Horse and his band had surrendered in May; but he mutinied in September and was killed in the encounter. The removal of the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies from Nebraska in November, 1877, ended Nebraska Indian troubles; and after Red Cloud and his band were finally settled at the Pine Ridge agency, in 1878, the formidable chief became permanently peaceful. The removal of these agencies was attended by the usual scandals. The Indians suffered intensely on the journey from cold and privations, and the carrier contractors worked off the usual graft in over-charges and delinquencies. General Crook boldly denounced these outrages.
   The last serious Indian tragedy in Nebraska resulted from the attempt of a band of Cheyenne Indians to escape from Fort Robinson. They had deserted their resrvation (sic) in Indian territory in September and fled northward, but were captured in the sandhills about forty miles southeast of Camp Sheridan and confined at Fort Robinson. They were determined to sacrifice their lives rather than return to the insufferable conditions of which they complained at that reservation. Accordingly, on the night of January 9, 1879, they broke from their confinement, after a desperate fight with the sentinels, and retreated to the hills; but nearly all of the band of sixty men and many of the women and children were killed by the pursuing soldiers. General Crook complained bitterly of the bad management which led to this unnecessary butchery.

   Nebraska Commonwealth, September 7, 1867, quotes from the Nebraska City Press: Judge John F. Kinney, one of the six special Indian commissioners, had just returned home after six months' absence, visiting all friendly Indians between the Platte and the Yellowstone rivers to separate them from hostiles. The commission conferred with Spotted Tail near Fort Sedgwick, April 1st, and assigned his band a temporary residence south of the Platte; then held a conference at Fort Laramie with 500 friendly Indians who agreed to join Spotted Tail. When Generals Sully and Parker, of the commission, went up the Missouri river, via Omaha, Commissioners Sanborn, Beauvais, and Buford remained at Laramie, and Judge Kinney went to Fort Phil. Kearny to confer with the Crows. He met 1,800 of them; but the first day Sioux and Cheyenne raided the Crows and drove off 100 horses. The Crows pursued and recaptured all but seven, and killed three Sioux. The Sioux and Cheyenne hung around the fort almost daily, killing small parties of soldiers and citizens. The Crow country lay between the Powder and Yellowstone rivers, and Commissioner Kinney promised that a large military expedition would be sent for their protection. He took a mass of testimony relative to the Phil. Kearny massacre. About fifty Indians attacked a wood train near the fort and Lieutenant Colonel William J. Fetterman and eighty (seventy-nine) soldiers were sent to their rescue. The Indians retreated, leading Fetterman on to a ridge, on either side of which 2,000 Indians were concealed, and they killed all the soldiers. Sixty-five bodies were found and the ground was still stained with blood when Judge Kinney made the investigation.
   Nebraska State Journal, November 13, 1869. A party headed by Governor Butler was escorted by fifty men of the state cavalry from Camp Butler, about eighteen miles from Meridian City. In all there were 110 men and twenty teams. They had killed ninety-three buffaloes. The governor was an expert horse man. "Indian attacks are of constant occurrence. Life is in imminent danger at all mo-



ments from the bloodthirsty attacks of the Sioux and Cheyennes, whose bands are hovering around the settlement . . . The whole country along the route of the Blue River, from Kiowa for twenty-five miles, has quite recently been largely populated and [put] in a state of cultivation but nothing now remains but desolation. Whole families have been exterminated. The whole country possesses the appearance of the passage of an invading army." (Correspondence of Cornelius R. Schaller, November 1st.)
   Ibid., November 3, 1870. Congratulated Secretary J. D. Cox on his resignation and denounced his Indian peace policy as "the acme, of childishness, mawkish sentimentality and general silliness." The Journal severely condemned the "silly and sickening 'talks' with Red Cloud and his gang of children-murdering and women-raping fiends," at Washington.
   Ibid., May 30, 1870. Notes that a military post, established by General Augur in Franklin county, on section 4, township 1, range 16 west, is occupied by two companies of troops -- C of the Second cavalry, Captain Spalding, and an infantry company. The post was under command of Captain Pollock. Scouting parties were sent east and west to give assurance to settlers and keep Cheyennes at a respectful distance.
   Omaha Weekly Republican, May 17, 1873. Complains that we have been trying the Penn policy for about four years and it won't do. Conflict is irrepressible, because the Indians want hunting grounds and the privilege of remaining nomads, and we are deprving (sic) them of both.
   Ibid., January 25, 1874. Account of a battle on the 19th, at the fork of the North Loup, Valley county, between a party of thirty or forty Sioux Indians, under Medicine Horse, returning from a raid on the Pawnee, and twelve men with Charlie White or "Buckskin" in command. The fight lasted twenty-five minutes. Marion Littlefield was killed and probably several Indians. The Indians retreated. They had about fifty Pawnee ponies. Buckskin and his party were trapping beaver. Several days before the fight the Indians plundered their camps, but the trappers snatched their guns.
   Omaha Herald (weekly), February 20, 1874. Ridicules the statement to the war department that as many as 12,000 Sioux were moving from the Big Horn country on the Platte settlements. Asserts that there was no war or danger of it.
   Ibid., February 27. Says the peace commission has failed to secure honest dealing with the Indians and wants the war department to try it.
   Ibid., July 23. Refers to B. F. Wade's report on the treatment of the Winnebagoes.
   Ibid., June 5. Insists that General Custer's expedition will get a hot time because he wants the notoriety.
   Ibid., September 4. Says Spotted Tail is "the truest red friend of the white man and of peace on these borders that ever lived," and "one of the ablest men in this country, civilized or savage."
   Ibid., November 6. Request of all chiefs and head men of the Pawnee that their reservation in Nebraska be sold and a new one selected in Indian territory, is signed by all the chiefs of the tribe and by B. Bush Roberts, member of the board of Indian commissioners, Barclay White, superintendent of Indian affairs, and William Burgess, U. S. Indian agent, says all the tribe approves.
   Ibid., June 18, 1875. Insists that the Sioux must go from Nebraska soil and relinquish their hunting grounds. When the present sites of the Spotted Tail and Red Cloud agencies were located the locators thought they were in Dakota where the reservations are. Sioux must give up right to hunt in Nebraska.

   NEBRASKA IN THE WAR WITH SPAIN. Nebraska furnished three full regiments and a troop of cavalry for the war with Spain. The First regiment Nebraska infantry was mustered in at Lincoln, Nebraska, the muster being completed May 9, 1898. The regiment was ordered to San Francisco, California, May 16, 1898; arrived there May 20, 1898; went into camp at Bay district, San Francisco; embarked for Manila, Philippine Islands, June 15, 1898, on the steamship "Senator"; dropped anchor in Manila bay July 17, 1898; disembarked and went into camp at Camp "Dewey," south of Manila, July 21, 1898; on outpost duty before Fort Malate, July 30, August 2, 5, 6, and 12, 1898; participated in the attack on Manila August 13, 1898; on guard and patrol duty in Tondo district, in the vicinity of the custom house from August 14 to December 4, 1898; went into camp at Santa Mesa, near Manila, December 5, 1898; on guard and outpost duty until the outbreak of February 4, 1899.
   The regiment took part in engagements as follows: In defense of camp, February 4, 1899; capture of block houses, February 6th



and 7th; powder magazine and the Deposito, February 5th; capture of pumping station, near Manila, February 6th; drove insurgents from Mariquina in defense of the pumping station, February 17th; engagements near Mariquina road, north of pumping station, February 22d, 24th, 27th, March 5th and 6th; drove insurgents out of the valley south of the pumping station and across Pasig river, March 7th; changed places with the Colorado regiment, March 15th; in advance on Malolos, March 25th to March 31st; in advance on Calumpit and San Fernando.
   The regiment returned to Manila, May 18, 1899, when six companies were detached to the south line of San Pedro Macati and three to Pateros, three companies remaining in barracks; relieved from duty in the department of the Pacific and embarked on the United States transport "A. T. Hancock," June 22d; sailed with the Utah battery for San Francisco, July 1st, via Nagasaki, Japan, thence to Yokohama, Japan, thence to San Francisco, arriving at that port July 29th; disembarked and went into camp at Presidio, July 30th; mustered out and discharged there, August 23d, after service of one year, three months and fourteen days; total enrollment, 1,376; lost, killed in battle, 21; died of wounds, 13; died of disease, 30; total loss, 64.
   Following is a roster of field officers of the First regiment:
   Colonel -- Bratt, John P., appointed May 10, 1898; mustered out November 10, 1898. Stotsenburg, John M., appointed November 10, 1898; killed in action, April 23, 1899. Mulford, Harry B., appointed April 26, 1899; mustered out August 23, 1899.
   Lieutenant-Colonel -- Colton, George R., appointed May 10, 1898; mustered out June 16, 1899. Eager, Frank D., appointed June 22, 1899; mustered out August 23, 1899.
   Major-- Stotsenburg, John M., appointed May 10, 1898; killed in action April 23, 1899. Mulford, Harry B., appointed May 10, 1898; mustered out August 23, 1899. Williams, Fred A., appointed November 10, 1898; mustered out August 23, 1899. Eager, Frank D., appointed April 9, 1,999; mustered out August 23, 1899; Taylor, Wallace C., appointed April 26, 1899; mustered out August 23, 1899. Kilian, Julius N., appointed June 22, 1899; mustered out August 23, 1899.
   The Second infantry regiment of the Nebraska National Guard -- the state militia -- entered the service of the United States, April 27, 1898, mobilizing at Lincoln, Nebraska; after completion of muster was ordered to Chickamauga Park, Georgia, leaving Lincoln, Thursday afternoon, May 19th, and arriving at their destination May 22d; left Chickamauga Park, Camp George H. Thomas, August 31st, arriving at Fort Omaha, September 3d, at 8 A.M., where it was mustered out October 24, 1898. This regiment had enrolled 46 officers and 1,366 enlisted men. It lost in deaths from disease, 26; by accident, 1; total, 27. Following is a roster of field officers of the Second regiment:
   Colonel -- Bills, Charles J., appointed May 10, 1898; mustered out October 24, 1898.
   Lieutenant-Colonel -- Olson, Emil, appointed May 10, 1898; mustered out October 24, 1898.
   Major -- Mapes, William S., appointed May 10, 1898; mustered out October 24, 1898. Tracy, Ernest H., appointed May 10, 1898; mustered out October 24, 1898.
   The Third regiment Nebraska infantry, was organized at Omaha, Nebraska; muster completed July 13, 1898; moved by rail to Jacksonville, Florida, July 18th; arrived four days later and went into camp at Panama Park, Camp Cuba Libre, becoming part of the First brigade, Third division, Seventh army corps; September 9th, moved by rail to camp at Pablo Beach, Florida; broke camp October 2d, owing to flooding by the ocean during a severe wind storm; two days later proceeded by rail to Jacksonville, Florida, into camp at Fairfield as part of the First brigade, First division, Seventh army corps; October 24th, moved to Camp Onward, Savannah, Georgia, the new location of the corps; thence to Havana, Cuba, the First battalion embarking on the United States transport "Obdam," December 30th, Second and Third battalions on the United States transport "Michigan," De-




W. J. Bryan & Mary Baird Bryan



cember 31st, arriving at Havana on the first and second of January, 1899, respectively; encamped with the Seventh army corps at Camp Columbia, Havana, Cuba, until April 7th, then embarked on the United States transport "Logan"; in quarantine at Daufuskie Island, South Carolina, April 13th; April 18th embarked for Savannah, Georgia, thence, April 19th, 1899, to Augusta, Georgia, for muster out at Camp Mackenzie. This regiment had enrolled during the period of service 61 officers and 1,358 enlisted men, and lost 32 in deaths from disease.
   Following is a roster of field officers of the Third regiment:
   Colonel -- Bryan, William J., appointed July 13, 1898; mustered out, December 12, 1898. Vifquain, Victor, appointed December 12, 1898; mustered out May 11, 1899.
   Lieutenant-Colonel -- Vifquain, Victor, appointed July 8, 1898. McClay, John H., apponted (sic) December 12, 1898; mustered out May 11, 1899.
   Major -- McClay, John H., appointed July 7, 1898. Scharmann, Conrad F., appointed July 9, 1898; mustered out May 11, 1899. Dungan, Harry S., appointed December 12, 1898; mustered out May 11, 1899.
   Troop A, cavalry, Nebraska National Guard, located at Milford, was enrolled for service in the war with Spain May 7, 1898; May 12th moved to Lincoln, Nebraska, and mustered into the United States volunteer service May 14th, as Troop K, Third United States volunteer cavalry; May 20th, moved to Chickamauga Park, Georgia, arriving there May 23d; mustered out at Chickamauga Park, Georgia, September 8, 1898. This troop had enrolled 3 officers and 77 enlisted men and lost two in deaths from disease.
   Following is a roster of officers of Troop K, Third regiment:
   Captain-- Culver, Jacob H., mustered in May 14, 1898; mustered out September, 8, 1898.
   First Lieutenant-- Kinney, William S., mustered in May 14, 1898; mustered out September 8, 1898.
   Second Lieutenant-- Culver, Elvin E., mustered in May 14, 1898; mustered out September 8, 1898.
   The First regiment won renown for splendid service in the Philippine Islands, and grateful citizens of Nebraska, individually, and by municipal, business, and other associations, 159 subscriptions in all, advanced the sum of $40,342.75 to pay the expense of transporting its members to their homes in the state. David E. Thompson, of Lincoln, subscribed $20,000 and William J. Bryan, of Lincoln, $1,250. The legislature of 1901 made an appropriation for refunding to the subscribers $36,315.45, the amount expended. Regiments of other states which served in the Philippines were treated in a like generous manner. The legislature also appropriated the sum of $11,000 for the purpose of paying $37.50 to each of the members of the regiment who had been mustered out of service on account of disability and had come home before the regiment was mustered out. The legislature of 1899 appropriated $2,000 to be expended by the governor "for the relief, aid and comfort of the sick and wounded soldiers now members of the First and Third regiments in the Philippine Islands and in the Island of Cuba." The Second and Third regiments suffered unduly from disease, caused by bad sanitary conditions, which seem to be incident to lack of experience and discipline on the part of both officers and men in the volunteer service in the early period of our wars. These regiments were disappointed because they had no chance to fight; but if opportunity had occurred they would have proved themselves as valorous and efficient as their envied contemporaries of the First regiment. All of these regiments were of superior quality, and the considerable number of men who had been in the State University battalion measurably improved their discipline and morale. Colonel John M. Stotsenburg was the heroic, and most considerable figure among the soldiers of Nebraska in the war with Spain. He was killed in action at Quingua, Luzon, April 23, 1899, and was honored with burial in the national cemetery at Arlington Heights. Colonel Stotsenburg was professor of military science and tactics in the University of Nebraska when the war began, and many of the cadets joined his regiment.

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