Edmund Erb among the German-Russian people that settled in Lincoln, there was organized in October, 1891, Immanuel Reformed Church, which, under the pastorates of Rev. A. Kanne, 1892-1896, and Rev. Edward C. Stuebi, 1893-1901, and Rev. John Arnold up to the present time, has grown in strength and influence among these people until today there is a membership of over five hundred.


   As indicated in the preceeding (sic) record, the Reformed church has been a factor in molding the rural population, whence springs a sturdy stock for the making of state and nation.



Near Harbine, Nebraska

   Among the Swiss settlers of Richardson county were a number of the Reformed faith. The record runs, "In December of 1871 the settlers of these parts dared for the first time to indulge the hope of having regular ministrations of God's word. Rev. F. Greenmiller declared himself ready to come over from Fall City every alternate Sunday and conduct Divine Worship. In this first gathering fifteen persons signified their readiness to help in building Zion. George Schneider was then elected elder and John Wittwer deacon." The pastor records, "We celebrated our first communion in the Schoolhouse (on the Rattlesnake) on the ninth day of June 1872." He further adds, "My support for the first year on the Rattlesnake was $73.00." At what is known as the Four Mile he held services in the home of Father Frankhouser for a number of years.
   In 1878 Rev. Daniel Greenwald became pastor of the congregation organized as Zion's Reformed Church, serving this congregation in connection with the church at Fairview, Kansas. In 1895 a church building was erected on the ground donated by M. Von Bergen and wife, and in the following year a parsonage was built. This has grown into a prosperous country church, and with an, enlarged and modernly equipped church is giving itself, under the pastorate of Rev. C. J. Snyder, to the church's task in the community. Not far from Humbolt are two prosperous congregations, St. John's in Pawnee county and Salem in Richardson county, organized in 1884 and 1885 by Rev. J. G. Steinert. One of these is the previously mentioned Four Mile church. Rev. Conrad Iffert is the present pastor.
   In the early seventies there settled in Stanton and Wayne counties Reformed people from Lippe, Germany. At the request of an active layman, Franz Puls, the mission board sent Rev. Otto Kuhn to minister unto these people and in August 30, 1881, Peace (evangelical) Reformed Church was organized in Stanton county. A second congregation was organized in Wayne county on May 9, 1886, by Rev. Mr. Kuhn, who continued to minister in spiritual things to these churches until 1892. Under succeeding pastors unto the present, Rev. August E. Hammann, these churches have rendered spiritual service unto these communities.
   Into the neighborhood of Harbine there came in the year of 1880 Reformed families from Sheboygan county, Wisconsin. Among them were Adolf Arpke and Ernest Stahl, devout laymen, who gathered the people together each Sunday for divine service, reading the Bible and a printed sermon. In 1882 Rev. William Koehler, under the direction of the mission board, began ministering to these people, and on Januuary (sic) 14, 1883, Hope Reformed Church was organized. Under the succeeding pastorate of Rev. A. G. Lohmann a house of worship and parsonage were built, and in 1890 the congregation became self-supporting. During the pastorate of Rev. John Schmalz the present modern and well arranged



building was erected in 1911. With the support of these sturdy and progressive farmers this congregation is rendering an increasing service to the community. The present pastor is Rev. H. C. Greib.
   Platte county, where there was a settlement of Swiss people, presented difficulties for the work of the church. The soil was sandy, the people were poor and had to struggle for bread for their own families. While devoted to the church of their fathers they were able to give little financial support. One pastor writes, "In general the history of all our pastors from 1870 to 1900 was a struggle with poverty. One of these pioneer missionaries had for a period of three months only corn bread to eat." Only the stout hearts continued in the work and now they are reaping the fruits of their labors.
   In 1889 these Reformed people with little means felt the necessity of having a regular pastor, and accordingly extended a call to Rev. J. B. Braun. He accepted the call and has continued the faithful pastor of the Bruetli and Duncanan (sic) congregations until the present. He summarizes thirty years of his pastorate thus, "The pastor and his flock live together like a family under the care of the Father. As I can see, the primitive confidence and love have not diminished. We are thirty regular families and some friends. My class of confirmants consists of the children of fathers and mothers I confirmed. We have not worked special wonders except the wonders of love." Such wonders will make a state a place where people will desire to dwell.
   Other congregations, as at York, where Rev. J. Schmalz ministers, at Harvard, where Rev. F. P. Franke has been pastor for some years, and at Belden in the northern part of the state, where Rev. J. Bohler is pastor, are to be added to the list of Reformed churches.
   These all are rendering their varying, measure of moral and spiritual ministry to the people, setting in motion impulses and influences that make for the moral stability and material prosperity of the state and through the state for the welfare of the nation.



   The earliest regular work of the United Presbyterian church in Nebraska was undertaken about a decade before statehood was secured. According to the records at hand the first congregation organized in Nebraska territory was at Rock Bluff in Cass county in the year 1857. This work still continues under the name of Murray. Near the same time a work was started also at Nebraska City but after some eleven or twelve years it was discontinued. The oldest congregation in the state that has retained its name unchanged is North Bend, which dates its life from the year 1861. In 1867 an organization was effected at Pawnee City, and in 1868 in Omaha. For nearly thirty years the Nebraska congregations were connected with the Synod of Iowa. In 1886 application was made to the General Assembly for the erection of a new synod to be called the Synod of Nebraska, and to include all the work of the church in Nebraska and also the Presbytery of Colorado. This application was granted and on September 28th of that same year the formal organization of the Synod of Nebraska took place in the city of Omaha. Rev. Marion Morrison, D.D., was the first moderator and Rev. Rufus Johnston the first stated clerk.
   Among the ministers of note who have labored in Nebraska mention may be made of the following: Rev. Marion Morrison, D.D., a veteran home missionary, whose last pastoral work was at Mission Creek in Pawnee county.; Rev. Thomas McCague, D.D., formerly a missionary to Egypt, who became the first pastor of the First United Presbyterian Church, Omaha; Rev. R. J. McCready, D.D., for more than thirty years pastor of the First Church, Pawneee (sic) City; Rev. John Williamson, D.D., the first pastor of the Central Church, Omaha; Rev. Alexander Gilchrist, D.D., who succeeded Dr. Williamson, and who was called by the General Assembly from that position to the office of corresponding secretary of the Board of Home Missions of the entire church.



   The United Presbyterian church has not taken root in Nebraska to the same extent that it has in several other western states, yet there are within the state two presbyteries and twenty congregations with a membership aggregating 2176. These congregations contributed to all purposes last year more than $50,000, an average per member of nearly $24. The following is a list of the more prominent congregations, at the present time: First Church, Omaha; Central Church, Omaha; South Omaha; Dunbar; North Bend; First Church, Lincoln; Minden; Superior; Burchard; First Church, Pawnee City; and Mission Creek, a strong country church in Pawnee county.
   To give this brief historical statement the semblance of completeness it is necessary to mention two other matters of interest which for a time, contributed materially to the life of the church. These were The Midland, and the Pawnee Academy. The Midland was a weekly church paper published for a number of years in Omaha under the able and vigorous editorial management of Rev. Edwin Brown Graham. While Mr. Graham was pastor of the First Church, Omaha, in 1886, he purchased The Midland which up to that time had been published in St. Louis, and transferred its place of publication to Omaha. This paper filled a large place in the life of the church throughout the west. After some years it was thought that its location was too far west and it was moved to Chicago. The other matter of history deserving mention was the academy at Pawnee City which for a number of years did a splendid work in the academic training of a large number of young people. But when the high school system of the state was developed there was no longer need for the academy and it was closed.
   At the present time, with a very few exceptions, all the United Presbyterian congregations in the state are in splendid condition, and are doing vigorous work under efficient pastors. In their sphere they have been a power for the upbuilding of a strong, virile citizenship.



   As the church body of that name is made up of Danish immigrants and their descendants, it will be in order -- as an introduction to its history -- to say a word or two about Danish immigration to America, its age, number, distribution and character. of the 3,500,000 Danes, now living, more than 500,000 are in the United States, reckoning those born in Denmark and their children, and including, also, the Danes from North Schleswig, of which a great number have come to the United States since 1864, when that part of Denmark by force and against its own will was incorporated into the Germany empire to avoid service in the Germany army. In United States statistics the Danes from Schleswig are counted as born in Germany.
   The first Danes that came to America -- as far as we know -- were the crews of two Danish ships that under the command of Captain Jens E. Munk, in 1619 were sent out by the Danish government to find the Northwest Passage to India, but found instead a graveyard at the mouth of Churchill river in Hudson Bay. From 1638 we find a goodly number of Danes among the Dutch settlers in what is now New York, city and state, and their descendants are now found all over the union as shown by their names. To mention Nebraska as an instance, such names as Sloat, Flansburg, Herman are originally Danish and hail from Danish settlers among the Dutch in New York. In the eighteenth century a number of Danes are found among the Germans of Pennsylvania, both as preachers and members of German congregations, Lutheran and Moravian, and several Danes fought as officers and privates in the Revolutionary War. But the real Danish immigration started in 1848 when the first body of country people came here and settled in Brown county, Wisconsin, where they cleared "Denmark township" and lived in their new home in Danish country style, harvesting their grain with the scythe and



threshing it with the flail to keep themselves warm in the cold winter days.
   From 1851 a large percentage of the Danish immigrants were Mormons. United States statistics say that in 1850 there were 1838 Danes in United States, and of these, two only in Utah Territory. In 1860 of 9962 Danes in United States, 1824 in Utah Territory. And in 1870 of 30,098 Danes in the United States, 4957 were in Utah.
   The Danes in United States are very much scattered. They are found in every state of the Union, but the great bulk of them are found in the central states. In 1910 there were 107,000 persons born in Denmark. In the thirteen central states: in Iowa 17,960, Illinois 17,370, Wisconsin 16,450, Minnesota 16,140, and in Nebraska 13,170. In California there were in 1910, 14,200 persons born in Denmark, and in New York 12,500. In all other states the number of Danes in any one state was less than 10,000.
   Within the different states the Danes are found in almost any county. There are but very few real large settlements of them. The largest number of Danes in cities are found in Chicago, Illinois (ca 12,000), New York (ca 6,000), Omaha, Nebraska (ca 2,500), Racine, Wisconsin (ca 3,000), San Francisco, California (ca 2,500), Minneapolis, Minnesota (ca 500). The largest settlements of Danes are in Shelby, Audubon, Pottawatamie, Blackhawk, and Montana counties, Iowa, and in Howard, Lancaster, Washington, Kearney, Hamilton and Nuckolls counties, Nebraska.
   Nearly all Danes are able to read and write and have had religious training from their childhood, having learned by heart Luther's smaller catechism and a Bible history, and were when they came here nominal members of the Lutheran church, the national church of Denmark, and as such supported by the government. They had been taught to work as soon as they were able to. They came to America, not for religious purposes, but to better their material circumstances and if possible, get a home of their own.
   And in this they have largely succeeded, especially those that were wise enough to get hold of a piece of land and stick to it during hard times. There are but few very rich Danes, but fewer inmates of the poorhouse. We can boast of but one, Jacob A. Riis, but we are glad that but few jail-birds are of Danish birth and descent. One Mormon apostle now living was born in Denmark, and I do not know how many bishops of the same faith. About one hundred Episcopal clergymen, now living, are of Danish descent, among them one bishop. Two bishops of the Moravian church were born in Denmark, and at least three members of the present United States Congress are of Danish descent, two of them born in Denmark.
   Most of the Danes came here without understanding or being able to speak one word English, many without friends with whom they could speak. They therefore had to begin life over again as far as language was concerned, making themselves understood by signs and sounds as well as they could, picking up a few words every day, learning to put them together and pronounce them just like babies. Going to church did not help them much as they did not understand the language used in the service. The first preachers among them that spoke a language they understood were generally Danish Baptists, especially in the cities, and on that account a good many of the earliest immigrants from Denmark joined the Baptist church. Others joined the Methodist church, won over by Danish or Norwegian missionaries, and some became members of the Norwegian and Swedish Lutheran congregations where such were found in the neighborhood. But the large majority of the first immigrants became entirely estranged to all church life, and had a baneful influence in that respect on the later coming of their countrymen in America.
   The church in Denmark did not care for those of its children that lived out of the kingdom, and the Danish people as a whole knew nothing about those of their countrymen who had emigrated to America and they took it for granted that the state in America took care of church matters as in Denmark. Letters from such as had gone to



America to friends in the old country helped to show how things stood. And a Dane, Claus I. Clausen, who in 1843 had gone to America as Lutheran pastor among Norwegian immigrants in Wisconsin, made a trip home in 1868, and held several meetings with Christian friends in which he spoke of the dire need of Christian workers among the Danes in United States, and encouraged his countrymen to do all in their power to help. Pastor Clausen's appeal had the result that an association for mission among Danes in United States was formed in 1869, composed of four clergymen and one layman. Said association through the press, called upon Christian friends all over the country to help and find both means and men to alleviate the need of their countrymen in far-off America. And in 1871 the association sent three workers to America, an ordained clergyman, Grove Rasmussen, who had been deposed from his office in Schleswig by the German government because he would not swear allegiance to the German emperor, and two lay missionaries, A. S. Nielsen and R. Andersen. Pastor Rasmussen was sent out to survey the field and then return and report to the association in Denmark, which he did, coming as far west as Grand Island, Nebraska, and north to Minneapolis, Minnesota.
   A. S. Nielsen was called as pastor by a Danish congregation in Cedar Falls, Iowa, and ordained in November, 1871, by Rev. C. L. Clausen in St. Ansgar, Iowa. R. Andersen was, after having completed his studies at a Norwegian theological seminary in Marshall, Wisconsin, ordained as pastor for a Danish congregation in Waupaca, Wisconsin, in 1872. Such was the small beginning of the Lutheran mission among the Danish immigrants in the United States who in 1870 numbered more than 30,000. New workers came from Denmark from year to year, new congregations were formed and church buildings erected in town and country. A church paper was started in 1872, a conference was formed in 1874, a high school started in 1878, in Elk Horn, Iowa, a weekly newspaper, Dannevirke, was started in 1880, also at Elk Horn, Iowa. In 1887 a theological seminary was opened at West Denmark, Polk county, Wisconsin, with two professors, of which the writer was one. Things seemed to go smoothly forward, and in 1894 "The Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in America," the name of the body since 1874, had about 60 ministers and 120 congregations.
   But a house divided against itself cannot stand and the Danish church was such a house. The majority of its ministers belonged to the so-called "Gratindtvigian" wing of the church of Denmark, so named after the poet and historian N. F. S Grundtvig (1783-1872), one of the greatest and most influential personalities that ever lived in Denmark. In his fight against rationalism he made the assertion that the foundation of the church is not holy scripture but the apostolic confession. The three articles of that creed are the living Word in comparison with which the scripture is dead and powerless. In other words, Grundtvig and his followers, also in the Danish church in America, put tradition above holy writ. A hot fight about the scriptures took place among the members of the conference, both in the papers and at meetings, and it was impossible to come to any agreement. Finally, in 1894 a split took place in the church body. About twenty-two ministers and their congregations left the conference in refusing to subscribe to a new constitution, adopted in 1893.
   These seceders adopted a Lutheran constitution in harmony with their ordination vow, and took the name "The Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church of North America" and started a theological seminary at Elk Horn, Iowa, with the writer as professor. It was deemed necessary to go this way to trace the origin of one of the parts that formed the union now known as "The United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America." We shall now briefly trace the origin of the other part of said union.
   While the Grundtvigian wing of the church of Denmark was the first to take up mission work among Danish immigrants in the United States, another wing of the same church, known as "The Inner Mission," was the first to call the attention of Christian



people in Denmark to the need of church work among such that had emigrated from Denmark to foreign lands, and especially to America. And after the Grundtvigians had taken up the work, Inner Mission, who had its hands full in working for Christian life among the masses of the national church at home, felt relieved and hoped to be able to work together with the Grundtvigians in America. But as it became more and more evident that the aforesaid named association sought its missionaries for America educated under exclusive Grundtvigian influence, the Inner Mission advised such young men of its midst that felt called upon to go to America as missionaries among their countrymen, to get their education for the ministry at the Augsburg Theological Seminary at Minneapolis, Minnesota, at that time owned by the Norwegian-Danish Conference for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, of which church body the aforenamed Rev. C. L. Clausen was the first president (1870).
   The first young Dane from the Inner Mission side that came to Augsburg Seminary to be educated for the ministry among his countrymen in the United States, was A. M. Andersen, now for many years editor of the Danskeren, a weekly Christian newspaper published by the United D. E. L. Church in Blair, Nebraska. Andersen came to this country in 1872 and after having completed his studies at Augsburg, in 1874, he was ordained pastor for a Danish congregation in Damsbray, Nebraska. He joined the Norwegian-Danish Conference aforenamed. Another young Dane, now Rev. H. Hansen, of Fresno, Calif., who came to the United States in 1865, had entered Augsburg Seminary before Andersen and was ordained also in 1874, to work among his countrymen in the state of Nebraska. And, to be brief, from 1872 to 1874, there were in all ten young Danes who studied at Augsburg Seminary and became pastors of Danish Lutheran congregations and joined the Norwegian-Danish Conference. Since 1877 these Danish ministers had their own Danish church paper, edited by Rev. A. M. Andersen, Racine, Wis.
   It will thus be seen that since 1872 there were two different missionary activities among the Danish Lutherans in this country, both claiming to represent the Lutheran church in the old country and each accusing the other to be the cause of division and opposition. It will be seen, also, that the division among the Danish ministers in America had its source in the church of Denmark. But while the different wings there worked inside of the national church, each in its own way, in this country there was no national church in which they could work, and consequently each had to build for itself, stand on its own feet.
   The Danes belonging to the Norwegian-Danish Conference felt more and more that although they were at one with conference in doctrine and church principles it hindered their work among their countrymen that they stood as members of a Norwegian church body, of which but few of their congregation were members. For that reason they, after much and conscientious deliberation, agreed to sever their connections with the Norwegians and, if possible, either connect themseves (sic) with the Danish church, or, if that proved to be out of question, start for themselves, as best they could.
   In September, 1884, at a meeting in Argo, Burt county, Nebraska, six ministers and some lay delegates agreed to constitute themselves a Lutheran church body, adopted a Lutheran constitution and took the name of "The Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church Association of America." The new church body agreed to start a theological seminary at Blair, Nebraska, with Rev. A. M. Andersen as president. At the meeting at Argo one candidate was ordained and two ministers admitted to the church. It should be added that before the meeting at Argo was held the ministers had through their secretary, corresponded with the officers of the Danish church and come to the conclusion that union with that body was out of the question.
   Having thus traced the origin of the other part of the union now known as the United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, we shall briefly follow the steps that led up to said union in 1896.
   The church body of 1884 numbered nine



ministers, nineteen congregations, and fifteen mission stations. In 1896, when it held its last annual conference, in Albert Lea, Minnesota, it had 42 ministers and 57 congregations and 25-30 mission stations, and about 7,000 communicants. Since 1884, it had its theological seminary, "Trinity Seminary" at Blair, Nebraska. In 1892 it started a mission among the Indians in what is now Oklahoma, through Rev. N. L. Nielsen, who is still working there. In 1890 a weekly child's paper was started, in 1893 a publishing house was started at Blair, Nebraska, "Danish Lutheran Publishing House."
   After the split, in 1894, in the Danish church, it was but natural that the Danish Church Association sought to affiliate with the minority that had organized at Elk Horn, Iowa, as stated above, so as to avoid having three small church bodies of the same faith in the United States and working in the same field. Discussions for that purpose were started in the papers. Meetings from both sides were held, and finally a joint commitee (sic) was appointed to draft a common constitution, with the understanding that when such constitution was unanimously adopted by both church bodies at their annual meetings a meeting to complete the union should be held by delegates from both sides. All the preliminary steps having been taken the union was completed at a meeting at Minneapolis, Minnesota, held from September 30 to October 2, 1896, where "The United Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America" became a reality. It consisted of 63 ministers, 8 lay missionaries, 127 congregations and 33 preaching stations.
   According to the report of the secretary to the last annual meeting (1918) the church has now 118 ministers, 189 congregations, 40 preaching stations and about 25,000 baptized members; 10 ministers have died since 1896, and 5 are on the retired list.
   At its first annual meeting, at Blair, Nebraska, 1897, the United Church was incorporated under the laws of the state of Nebraska, with the head office at Blair, Nebraska.
   The church today is divided into nine districts, a necessity because of its wide field of work. Each of these districts has its board of directors whose president reports to the annual meeting of the church.
   The United Church is a missionary church both in the home and foreign field. Each of its districts support one or more home missionaries. Several districts have supported missions in the larger cities till the congregations there were able to uphold themselves.
   In the foreign field the church supports the following missions: 1. Among the Indians in Oklahoma as mentioned above. One important factor in this mission is its school work through which many young members have been added to the church.
   2. Since 1900 it has supported a mission in Japan with Kurume as center. That mission was started by Rev. J. M. Th. Winther, a graduate from our theological seminary at Blair. At present there are three ordained missionaries from our church working there, and also a native minister and several lay helpers. Our missionaries uphold a theological school in common with another American Lutheran Mission from the southern states.
   Besides this we have immigrant missions in New York and Boston, and a seaman's mission in San Francisco, California. And also a mission among the Mormons in Utah.


   It has been stated above that the small church body, organized at Argo, Nebraska, in 1884 took steps to start a school for future ministers. In the fall of 1894 Rev. A. M. Andersen started such a school in his home in Blair with four students. The professor, students, and the professor's family slept under the same roof, ate at the same table as best they could. Rev. Andersen was on the lookout for a larger home for the school. An offer of $5,000 was given by the citizens of Omaha, on the conditions that the school be moved there and Andersen put up an equal sum. But money was not plentiful in those days, especially not among Danish church people, so Andersen declined the offer.
   The city of Blair made an offer of $3,000 on the same conditions. And Andersen mustered



up courage to accept it, in hopes that he would be able to collect an equal sum among his church friends. He succeeded, although not without difficulties, and in the fall of 1886 a four story building, erected on the bluffs northwest of the city of Blair, was dedicated as the future home of Trinity Theological Seminary, the first school of its kind among Danish Lutherans in the United States. Before long it was found necessary to start a pro-seminary course, and also a course for those who wished to study English and common school branches in the English language, during the winter months. Still later it was found advisable to open a course for young ladies during three summer months.
   Rev. Andersen was president of the school till 1889, when he was succeeded by Rev. G. B. Christiansen, who held that position till 1896, when the school became the property of the United Church. Rev. G. B. Christiansen was elected president of the United Church, an office he still holds.
   During Christiansen's presidency a wing was added to the main building and, later, in 1903, another wing and also a ladies' dormitory and a gymnasium. Since the school, in 1899, became co-educational and a college department was added, its enrollment increased till about 150-175 a year, all told. It now comprises eight departments with a staff of ten instructors and some assistants. The value of buildings, grounds, and equipment is about $75,000. The school has no endowments of any kind.
   About 4,000 young men and women, mostly of Danish descent, have gone out from its halls to their different stations in life and are now spread all over our country. About 100 ministers have graduated from the theological school. About 100 graduates have been fighting on the bloody battle fields of France in the late world war. Some of our theological graduates have worked as camp pastors and one as army chaplain at the front, the Rev. James C. Peterson, a native of Nebraska, born and raised on a farm in Nuckolls county. Our oldest professor, C. X. Hansen, M.A., was one of the first students of the school. He is now principal of Dana College. P. S. Vig is head of the theological seminary, and Rev. L. A. Laursen president of the whole school.
   The medium of instruction is the English language, the theological is bi-lingual, as the majority of our congregations, at present.
   Danish Lutheran Publishing House has been mentioned above. It comprises a general book store and printing and publishing establishment owned and run by the United Church. It publishes the following papers: Danskeren, a weekly newspaper in the Danish language, started at Neenah, Wisconsin, in 1892, by Rev. J. N. Jersild, who sold it to the church in 1897. The present editor is Rev. A. M. Andersen.
   Bornevennen (The Child's Friend), a weekly child's paper in the Danish language, editor Rev. L. Jensen, Ruskin, Nebraska.
   The Little Lutheran, a weekly child's paper in the English language; editor, Rev. H. W. Bondo, Harlan, Iowa.
   De Unges Veit, a weekly bi-lingual young peoples' paper, Rev. I. Gertsen, Council Bluffs, Iowa, editor.
   Dansk Lutheran Kirkebald, a weekly church paper, Rev. M. N. Andreasen, Cedar Falls, Iowa, editor.
   The present manager of the Danish Lutheran Publishing House is Mr. H. Skov Nielsen.
   The United Church supports two orphan homes, one at Elk Horn, Iowa, and one at Waupaca, Wisconsin, both small. Also a sanatarium (sic) and old people's home at Brush, Colorado, started and managed by Rev. J. Madsen.
   The above mentioned branches of work were started and are upheld by a comparatively small and poor church body. But in unity is strength, says an old proverb, and that has been our experience so far. We feel assured that we shall experience the same during the transition period in which we live. And we feel, also, that we have served our adopted country in working among its immigrants for upholding and futherance (sic) of religion and morale, the foundation of home, state, and country.


   The first Danes that came to Nebraska, as

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